Aluminium trifluoride (AlF3) has the composition of one aluminium and three fluorine atoms. What is the molecular geometry of aluminium trifluoride?. Drawing and predicting the AlF3 molecular geometry is very easy by following the given method. Here in this post, we described step by step to construct AlF3 molecular geometry. Fluorine and aluminium come from the 17th and 13th family groups in the periodic table. Fluorine and aluminium have seven and three valence electrons respectively.
Key Points To Consider When drawing the AlF3 Molecular Geometry
A three-step approach for drawing the AlF3 molecular can be used. The first step is to sketch the molecular geometry of the AlF3 molecule, to calculate the lone pairs of the electron in the central aluminium atom; the second step is to calculate the AlF3 hybridization, and the third step is to give perfect notation for the AlF3 molecular geometry.
The AlF3 molecular geometry is a diagram that illustrates the number of valence electrons and bond electron pairs in the AlF3 molecule in a specific geometric manner. The geometry of the AlF3 molecule can then be predicted using the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR Theory) and molecular hybridization theory, which states that molecules will choose the AlF3 geometrical shape in which the electrons have from one another in the specific molecular structure.
Finally, you must add their bond polarities characteristics to compute the strength of the Al-F bond (dipole moment properties of the AlF3 molecular geometry). The aluminium-fluorine bonds in the aluminium trifluoride (AlF3), for example, are polarised toward the more electronegative value fluorine atom, and because all (Al-F) bonds have the same size and polarity, their sum is zero due to the AlF3 molecule’s bond dipole moment due to it oppose to each other in the trigonal planar geometry, and the AlF3 molecule is classified as a nonpolar molecule.
The molecule of aluminium trifluoride (with trigonal planar shape AlF3 molecular geometry) is tilted at 120 degrees bond angle of F-Al-F. It has a difference in electronegativity values between aluminium and fluorine atoms, with fluorine’s pull the electron cloud being greater than aluminium’s. But bond polarity of Al-F is cancelled to each other in the trigonal planar geometry. As a result, it has no permanent dipole moment in its molecular structure. The AlFr3 molecule has no dipole moment due to an equal charge distribution of negative and positive charges.
Overview: AlF3 electron and molecular geometry
According to the VSEPR theory, AlF3 possesses trigonal planar molecular geometry. Because the center atom, aluminium, has three Al-F bonds with the fluorine atoms surrounding it. The F-Al-F bond angle is 120 degrees in the trigonal planar molecular geometry. The AlF3 molecule has a trigonal planar geometry shape because it contains three fluorine atoms.
There are three Al-F bonds at the AlF3 molecular geometry. After linking the three fluorine atoms and no lone pairs of electrons in the trigonal planar form, it maintains the planar-T-like structure. In the AlF3 molecular geometry, the Al-F bonds have stayed in the three terminals and no lone pairs of electrons in the top and bottom of the trigonal planar molecule.
The center aluminium atom of AlF3 has no lone pairs of electrons, resulting in trigonal planar electron geometry. However, the molecular geometry of AlF3 looks like a trigonal planar and no lone pairs on the top and bottom of the AlF3 geometry. It’s the AlF3 molecule’s symmetrical geometry. As a result, the AlF3 molecule is nonpolar.
How to find AlF3 hybridization and molecular geometry
Calculating lone pairs of electrons on aluminium in the AlF3 geometry:
- Determine the number of lone pairs on the core aluminium atom of the Al3 Lewis structure. Because the lone pairs on aluminium are mostly responsible for the Al3 molecule geometry distortion, we need to calculate out how many there are on the central aluminium atom of the Lewis structure.
Use the formula below to find the lone pair on the aluminium atom of the AlF3 molecule.
L.P(Al) = V.E(Al) – N.A(Al-F)/2
Lone pair on the central aluminium atom = L.P(Al)
The core central aluminium atom’s valence electron = V.E(Al)
Number of Al-F bonds = N.A (Al-F)calculation for aluminium atom lone pair in AlF3 molecule
For instance of AlF3, the central atom, aluminium, has three electrons in its outermost valence shell, three Al-F bond connections.
As a result of this, L.P(Al) = (3 –3)/2=0
In the AlF3 electron geometry structure, the lone pair on the central aluminium atom is zero. It means there are no lone pairs of electrons in the core aluminium atom. This makes the AlF3 molecule electron deficient. It makes coordination with ammonia. No lone pairs of electrons on the central aluminium atom are responsible for the planar nature of AlF3 molecular geometry.
If you imagine, there is no lone pair on the aluminium atom of the AlF3 molecule. Then, electronic repulsion of Al-F bonds pair and zero lone pair of electrons in the AlF3. That gives stable trigonal planar geometry. No lone pairs of electrons are located on the top and bottom of the geometry. It makes a stable trigonal planar structure.
But in reality, the AlFr3 molecule undergoes distortion in its geometry due to the polarity of the Al-F bond and no lone pairs of electrons in the trigonal planar geometry. This leads to a trigonal planar for the AlF3 molecule.
Calculate the number of molecular hybridizations of the AlF3 molecule
What is AlF3 hybridization? This is a very fundamental question in the field of molecular chemistry. All the molecules made by atoms. In chemistry, atoms are the fundamental particles. There are four different types of orbitals in chemistry. They are named as s, p, d, and f orbitals.
The entire periodic table arrangement is based on these orbital theories. Atoms in the periodic table are classified as follows:
s- block elements
p- block elements
f-block elementsAtoms are classified in the periodic table
AlF3 molecule is made of one aluminium and three fluorine atoms. The aluminium atom has s and p orbitals. Fluorine comes as the first element from the halogen family in the periodic table. The fluorine atom has s and p orbitals.
When these atoms combine to form the AlF3 molecule, its atomic orbitals mix and form unique molecular orbitals due to hybridization.
How do you find the AlF3 molecule’s hybridization? We must now determine the molecular hybridization number of AlF3.
The formula of AlF3 molecular hybridization is as follows:
No. Hyb of AlF3= N.A(Al-F bonds) + L.P(Al)
No. Hy of AlF3= the number of hybridizations of AlF3
Number of Al-F bonds = N.A (Al-F bonds)
Lone pair on the central aluminium atom = L.P(Al)Calculation for hybridization number for AlF3 molecule
In the AlF3 molecule, the aluminium is a core central atom with three fluorine atoms connected to it and no lone pairs of electrons. The number of AlF3 hybridizations (No. Hyb of AlF3) can then be estimated using the formula below.
No. Hyb of AlF3= 3+0 =3
The AlF3 molecule hybridization is three. The aluminium atom has s and p orbitals. The fluorine atom has s and p orbital. The sp2 hybridization of the AlF3 molecule is formed when one S orbital and two p orbitals join together to form a molecular orbital.
Molecular Geometry Notation for AlF3 Molecule :
Determine the form of AlF3 molecular geometry using VSEPR theory. The AXN technique is commonly used when the VSEPR theory is used to calculate the shape of the AlF3 molecule.
The AXN notation of AlF3 molecule is as follows:
The center aluminium atom in the AlF3 molecule is denoted by the letter A.
The bound pairs (three Al-F bonds) of electrons to the core aluminium atom are represented by X.
The lone pairs of electrons on the central aluminium atom are denoted by the letter N.Notation for AlF3 molecular geometry
We know that aluminium is the core atom, with three electron pairs bound (three Al-F) and zero lone pair of electrons. The general molecular geometry formula for AlF3 is AX3.
According to the VSEPR theory, if the AlF3 molecule has an AX3 generic formula, the molecular geometry and electron geometry will both be trigonal planar forms.
|Name of Molecule||Aluminium trifluoride|
|Chemical molecular formula||AlF3|
|Molecular geometry of AlF3||Trigonal planar|
|Electron geometry of AlF3||Trigonal planar|
|Hybridization of AlF3||sp2|
|Bond angle (F-Al-F)||120º degree|
|Total Valence electron for AlF3||24|
|The formal charge of AlF3 on aluminium||0|
In this post, we discussed the method to construct AlF3 molecular geometry, the method to find the lone pairs of electrons in the central aluminium atom, AlF3 hybridization, and AlF3 molecular notation. Need to remember that, if you follow the above-said method, you can construct the AlF3 molecular structure very easily.
What is AlF3 Molecular geometry?
AlF3 Molecular geometry is an electronic structural representation of molecules.
What is the molecular notation for AlF3 molecule?
AlF3 molecular notation is AX3.
The polarity of the molecules
The polarity of the molecules are listed as follows
- Polarity of BeCl2
- Polarity of SF4
- Polarity of CH2Cl2
- Polarity of NH3
- Polarity of XeF4
- Polarity of BF3
- Polarity of NH4+
- Polarity of CHCl3
- Polarity of BrF3
- Polarity of BrF5
- Polarity of SO3
- Polarity of SCl2
- Polarity of PCl3
- Polarity of H2S
- polarity of CS2
- Polarity of NO2+
- Polarity of HBr
- Polarity of HCl
- Polarity of CH3F
- Polarity of SO2
- Polarity of CH4
Lewis Structure and Molecular Geometry
Lewis structure and molecular geometry of molecules are listed below
- CH4 Lewis structure and CH4 Molecular geometry
- BeCl2 Lewis Structure and BeCl2 Molecular geometry
- SF4 Lewis Structure and SF4 Molecular geometry
- CH2Cl2 Lewis Structure and CH2Cl2 Molecular geometry
- NH3 Lewis Structure and NH3 Molecular geometry
- XeF4 Lewis Structure and XeF4 Molecular geometry
- BF3 Lewis Structure and BF3 Molecular geometry
- NH4+ Lewis Structure and NH4+ Molecular geometry
- CHCl3 Lewis Structure and CHCl3 Molecular geometry
- BrF3 Lewis Structure and BrF3 Molecular geometry
- BrF5 Lewis Structure and BrF5 Molecular geometry
- SO3 Lewis Structure and SO3 Molecular geometry
- SCl2 Lewis structure and SCl2 Molecular Geometry
- PCl3 Lewis structure and PCl3 Molecular Geometry
- H2S Lewis structure and H2S Molecular Geometry
- NO2+ Lewis structure and NO2+ Molecular Geometry
- HBr Lewis structure and HBr Molecular Geometry
- CS2 Lewis structure and CS2 Molecular Geometry
- CH3F Lewis structure and CH3F Molecular Geometry
- SO2 Lewis structure and SO2 Molecular Geometry
- HCl Lewis structure and HCl Molecular Geometry
- HF Lewis structure and HF Molecular Geometry
- HI Lewis structure and HI Molecular Geometry
- CO2 Lewis structure and CO2 Molecular Geometry
- SF2 Lewis structure and SF2 Molecular Geometry
- SBr2 Lewis structure and SBr2 Molecular Geometry
- PF3 Lewis structure and PF3 Molecular Geometry
- PBr3 Lewis structure and PBr3 Molecular Geometry
- CH3Cl Lewis structure and CH3Cl Molecular Geometry
- CH3Br Lewis structure and CH3Br Molecular Geometry
- CH3I Lewis structure and CH3I Molecular Geometry
- SCl4 Lewis structure and SCl4 Molecular Geometry
- SBr4 Lewis structure and SBr4 Molecular Geometry
- CH2F2 Lewis structure and CH2F2 Molecular Geometry
- CH2Br2 Lewis structure and CH2Br2 Molecular Geometry
- XeCl4 Lewis structure and XeCl4 Molecular Geometry
- BCl3 Lewis structure and BCl3 Molecular Geometry