How to draw Cl2 Lewis Structure

The chlorine gas chemical formula is Cl2. Drawing Cl2 Lewis Structure is very easy to by using the following method. Here in this post, we described step by step method to construct Cl2 Lewis Structure. The diatomic chlorine molecule elements come as members of the halogen family group from the periodic table. The valence electrons in the chlorine atom are seven. Chlorine gas is used to make chemical corrosive reagents for organic chemical reactions as a chlorinating agent in organic chemistry. It is used as a disinfectant.

Key Points To Consider When Drawing The Cl2 Electron Dot Structure

A three-step approach for drawing the Cl2 Lewis structure can be used. The first step is to sketch the Lewis structure of the Cl2 molecule, to add valence electrons around the two chlorine atoms, and the final step is to combine the two chlorine diatomic atoms to get the Cl2 Lewis Structure.

The Cl2 Lewis structure is a diagram that illustrates the number of valence electrons and bond electron pairs in the Cl2 molecule. The geometry of the Cl2 molecule can then be predicted using the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR Theory), which states that molecules will choose the Cl2 geometrical shape in which the electrons have from one another.

Finally, you must add their bond polarities to compute the strength of the one Cl-Cl single bonds (dipole moment properties of the Cl2 molecule). The chlorine-chlorine bonds in chlorine molecule(Cl2), for example, are polarised equally the more electronegative chlorine in Cl2 molecule, and because both bonds have the same size and are located around one chlorine terminal of the two tetrahedral or linear structure with three lone pairs (in total six electrons) on the chlorine atoms, their sum of dipole moment is zero due to the Cl2 molecule’s bond dipole moment and two chlorine atoms canceled the polarity. Because Cl-Cl bonds polarity is canceled in the Cl2 molecule due to the presence of two equal sharing in the linear geometry. The chlorine(Cl2) molecule is classified as a nonpolar molecule.

How to draw Cl2 Lewis Structure

The molecule of diatomic chlorine(with tetrahedral or linear-shaped molecular geometry) is tilted, the bond angles between chlorine and chlorine are 180 degrees. It has no difference in electronegativity values between chlorine and other chlorine atoms, with both chlorine’s pull being equal in the Cl2 molecule. But they canceled each other due to the symmetrical linear structure with three lone pairs in the molecular geometry of the Cl2 molecule.

As a result, it has the zero dipole moment. The Cl2 molecule has a zero dipole moment due to an equal charge distribution of negative charges on both chlorine terminals. But both chlorine atoms fall on the halogen family groups in the periodic table. The chlorine atom is a more electronegative value than iodine atom in the halogen family group. The Cl2 molecule has the net dipole moment of 0D value in the ground state energy level.

Cl2 molecule has one Cl-Cl single bond. Its dipole moment in the ground state is totally different as compared with the excited state. If it absorbs light may be from visible or UV light. It undergoes pi to pi star and n to pi star transition from ground state energy level to excited state energy level. In the excited state energy level, the Cl2 molecule shows a definite dipole moment. But it is very dynamic in nature.

Molecules can be classified as polar or nonpolar. The molecule polar behaves in a different manner as compared to nonpolar.

Overview: Cl2 Lewis Structure

The terminal atom is chlorine, which is bordered on two terminals with chlorine atoms( in tetrahedral or linear geometry), and three lone pairs on the two chlorine atoms in the tetrahedral or linear molecular geometry. Chlorine has seven outermost valence electrons, indicating that it possesses seven electrons in its outermost shell. To complete the octet of the two chlorine atoms requires one valence electron on each of their outermost shell.

One chlorine atom establishes covalent connections with the other terminal chlorine atom as a result, leaving each chlorine atom with three lone pairs. There are three lone pairs of electrons on the chlorine terminal atom that resists the bond pairs of the Cl-Cl bond. According to VSEPR theory, the Cl-Cl bond pairs polarity lead the Cl2 molecule to take on the linear or tetrahedral geometry structure.

The Cl2 molecule’s one Cl-Cl bond is arranged in symmetrical polarity order around the linear or tetrahedral molecular geometry, giving rise to the Cl2 molecular shape. The bond order of the Cl2 molecule is one. The Cl2 molecule has a tetrahedral or linear molecular geometry because there is an electrical repulsion between the lone pairs of electrons in chlorine and one single bond pair(cl-F) of the Cl2 molecule.

Lewis structure of Cl2 has dot electron representative structure. Valence electrons of atoms undergo orbitals mixing in the chemical reactions, giving new types of molecular species of Cl2. The molecule is nothing but a bundle of valence electrons from the atoms. But it is converted to bond pairs and lone pairs in the molecular structure.

Electronegative value Difference Calculation of Cl2 Molecule:

Chlorine and chlorine Electronegative difference in Cl2 molecule:

The chlorine atom has an electronegativity of 3.16 in the Cl2 molecule. The difference in electronegativity of chlorine and chlorine can be estimated using the method below.

The electronegative value difference between chlorine and chlorine in Cl2 molecule

Electronegativity value of chlorine= 3.16

Electronegativity value of chlorine= 3.16

Difference of electronegativity value between chlorine and chlorine in Cl2 molecule = 3.16 – 3.16= 0.00

Electronegativity difference between Cl-Cl bond calculation of Cl2 molecule

The electronegative difference between chlorine and chlorine is less than 0.5. This indicated the bond polarity moves near to nonpolar nature. Cl-Cl bond polarity in the Cl2 molecule is nonpolar.

Because of this difference in electronegativity of chlorine and chlorine atoms, the Cl2 molecule’s Cl-Cl bond becomes nonpolar. The total net dipole moment of the Cl2 molecule is zero due to the cancellation of the bond dipole moment in the linear or tetrahedral geometry due to the presence of three lone pairs of electrons. The electronegativity of an atom is the strength with which it may attract bound electron pairs to its side. The polarity and Lewis structure of HF are discussed in our previous post.

As a result, the Cl-Cl bond’s dipole moment is higher due to the polarization of the bonds and three lone pairs of electrons on chlorine, and all Cl-Cl bonds’ dipoles are arranged in the symmetrical Cl2 molecular geometry. The Cl2 molecule has a zero net dipole moment.

The electron dot structure of the Cl2 molecule is also known as the Cl2 Lewis structure. It determines the number of outermost valence electrons as well as the electrons engaged in the Cl2 molecule’s bond formation. The outermost valence electrons of the Cl2 molecule must be understood while constructing the Lewis structure of the molecule.

The chlorine atom is the terminal element in Cl2 molecular geometry, with seven electrons in its outermost valence electron shell.

The Cl2 has a total of 14 valence electrons as a result of the foregoing above-said reasoning. With the terminal chlorine atom, the other terminal with one chlorine atom forms covalent bond, leaving the chlorine atom with three lone pairs(12 electron total) in the middle of linear or tetrahedral geometry.

Because three lone pairs on the terminal chlorine atoms create interaction with Cl-Cl bond pairs(but it is negligible in the ground state of the Cl2 molecule). The bond angle of the Cl-Cl bond in the linear or tetrahedral molecular geometry is approximately 180 degrees. This angle is greater than the CH4 molecule bond angle. The Cl-Cl bond length is longer than the F-F bond length.

To sketch the Cl2 Lewis structure by following these instructions:

Step-1: Cl2 Lewis dot Structure by counting valence electrons on the chlorine atom

To calculate the valence electron of each atom in Cl2, look for its periodic group from the periodic table. The halogen group families, which is the 17th in the periodic table, are made up of two chlorine atoms. In their outermost shells, chlorine and chlorine have seven and seven valence electrons respectively.

Calculate the total number of valence electrons in the Cl2 molecule’s outermost valence shell. The first step is to determine how many electrons are in the Cl2 Lewis structure’s outermost valence shell. An electron in an atom’s outermost shell is known as a valence electron. It is represented by dots in the Cl2 Lewis diagram. The Cl2 molecule’s core chlorine atom can be represented as follows:

Total outermost valence shell electron of chlorine atom in Cl2= 7

Total outermost valence shell electron of chlorine atom in Cl2= 7

The Cl2 molecule has one terminal chlorine and other terminal chlorine atoms. Then the total outermost valence shell electrons can be calculated as follows

∴ Total outermost valence shell electrons available for Cl2 Lewis structure( dot structure) = 7+7= 14 valence electrons  in Cl2.  

calculation of total valence electron of Cl2 molecule

Choose the atom with the least electronegative value atom and insert it in both terminals of the molecular geometry of Cl2. We’ll choose the least electronegative value atom in the Cl2 molecule to place in the terminal of the Cl2 Lewis structure diagram in this phase.

How to draw Cl2 Lewis Structure

The first step is to put seven valence electrons around the chlorine atom as given in the figure.

Step-2: Lewis dot Structure for Cl2 generated from step-1

Connect the two terminal atoms of the Cl2 molecule with one single Cl-Cl bond. In this stage, use one chlorine atom on the outside of the Cl2 molecule to the other terminal chlorine atom in the molecular geometry.

Count how many electrons from the outermost valence shell have been used in the Cl2 structure so far. Cl-Cl single bond carries two electrons because the chlorine atom is connected to another chlorine atom by Cl-Cl single bonds. Bond pairings of Cl-Cl are what they’re called.

So, out of the total of 14 valence electrons available for the Cl2 Lewis structure, we used four electrons for the Cl2 molecule’s one Cl-Cl single bond. The Cl2 molecule has three lone pairs of electrons in the two-terminal chlorine atoms.

Place the valence electrons in the Cl-Cl bond pair starting with the one terminal chlorine, another chlorine atom in the Cl2 molecule. In the Cl2 Lewis structure diagram, we always begin by introducing valence electrons from the terminal chlorine atom(in step1). As a result, wrap around the terminal chlorine atom’s bond pair valence electrons first (see figure for step1).

The chlorine atom in the molecule gets only 14 electrons around its molecular structure. This central chlorine atom is octet stable. But it has three lone pairs. Chlorine (Cl2) is a yellowish-green color gas. Chlorine is very corrosive in nature. It is one of the very reactive chemical reagents.

Chlorine requires 8 electrons in its outermost valence shell to complete the molecular octet stability, two electrons bond pairs in one Cl-Cl single bond, and three lone pairs in the terminal chlorine atom. Chlorine already shares 8 electrons to the one Cl-Cl single bonds.

We’ve positioned 8 electrons around the one-terminal chlorine atoms(step-1), which is represented by a dot, in the Cl2 molecular structure above. The chlorine atom completes its molecular octet stability in the Cl2 molecule because it possesses 2 electrons in its (one Cl-Cl single bonds) bond pairs with one chlorine in the outermost valence shell.

How to draw Cl2 Lewis Structure

Count how many outermost valence shell electrons have been used so far using the Cl2 Lewis structure. One electron bond pairs are shown as dots in the Cl2 chemical structure, whereas one single bond contains two electrons. The outermost valence shell electrons of the Cl2 molecule(bond pairs) are 2 as a result of the calculation. The total valence electron in a chlorine atom is 8.

So far, we’ve used 8 of the Cl2 Lewis structure’s total 14 outermost valence shell electrons. Three lone pairs of electrons on each chlorine atom in the linear or tetrahedral geometry of the Cl2 molecule.

Complete the terminal Cl2 atom stability and, if necessary, apply a covalent bond. The terminal chlorine atom undergoes octet stability(due to one single bond pair of electrons).

The core atom in the Cl2 Lewis structure is chlorine, which is bonded to the one terminal chlorine atom by single bonds (one Cl-Cl). With the help of one single bond, it already shares 8 electrons. As a result, the chlorine follows the octet rule and has 8 electrons surrounding it on the one terminal of the Cl2 molecule’s linear or tetrahedral geometry.

How to calculate the formal charge on chlorine and other chlorine atoms in Cl2 Lewis Structure?

Calculating formal charge on the chlorine of Cl2 molecule:

The formal charge on the Cl2 molecule’s chlorine central atom often corresponds to the actual charge on that chlorine terminal atom. In the following computation, the formal charge will be calculated on the terminal chlorine atom of the Cl2 Lewis dot structure.

To calculate the formal charge on the terminal chlorine atom of the Cl2 molecule by using the following formula:

The formal charge on the chlorine atom of Cl2 molecule= (V. E(cl)– L.E(cl) – 1/2(B.E))

V.E (cl) = Valence electron in a chlorine atom of Cl2 molecule

L.E(cl) = Lone pairs of an electron in the chlorine atom of the Cl2 molecule.

B.E = Bond pair electron in F atom of Cl2 molecule

calculation of formal charge on chlorine atom in Cl2 molecule

The chlorine terminal atom (one single bond connected to one chlorine atom) of the Cl2 molecule has seven valence electrons, three lone pairs of electrons(six electrons), and 2 bonding pairing valence electrons. Put these values for the chlorine atom in the formula above.

Formal charge on chlorine atom of Cl2 molecule = (7- 6-(2/2)) =0

In the Lewis structure of Cl2, the formal charge on the terminal chlorine atom is zero.

Summary:

In this post, we discussed the method to construct the Cl2 Lewis structure. First, the valence electrons are placed around the two chlorine atoms. Finally, when we combined the first and second steps. It gives Cl2 Lewis structure. Need to remember that, if you follow the above-said method, you can construct molecular dot structure very easily.

What is the Cl2 Lewis structure?

Cl2 Lewis structure is dot representation

What is the formal charge on the Cl2 Lewis structure?

Zero charges on the Cl2 molecular structure

The polarity of the molecules

The polarity of the molecules are listed as follows

Lewis Structure and Molecular Geometry

Lewis structure and molecular geometry of molecules are listed below

External Reference:

Information on chlorine(Cl2)

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