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How to draw CS2 Lewis Structure? - Science Education and Tutorials

How to draw CS2 Lewis Structure?

The carbon disulfide chemical formula is CS2. Drawing CS2 Lewis Structure is very easy to by using the following method. Here in this post, we described step by step method to construct CS2 Lewis Structure. The sulfur and carbon elements come as the member of the oxygen and carbon family groups from the periodic table respectively. The valence electrons in sulfur and carbon are six and one respectively. Carbon disulfide is used as a nonpolar solvent in organic synthetical chemistry.

Key Points To Consider When Drawing The CS2 Electron Dot Structure

A three-step approach for drawing the CS2 Lewis structure can be used. The first step is to sketch the Lewis structure of the CS2 molecule, to add valence electrons around the carbon atom; the second step is to add valence electrons to the two sulfur atoms, and the final step is to combine the step1 and step2 to get the CS2 Lewis Structure.

The CS2 Lewis structure is a diagram that illustrates the number of valence electrons and bond electron pairs in the CS2 molecule. The geometry of the CS2 molecule can then be predicted using the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR Theory), which states that molecules will choose the CS2 geometrical shape in which the electrons have from one another.

Finally, you must add their bond polarities to compute the strength of the two C-S double bonds (dipole moment properties of the CS2 molecule). The sulfur-carbon bonds in carbon disulfide(CS2), for example, are non-polarised toward the almost same electronegative sulfur and carbon in CS2 molecule, and because both bonds have the same size and are located around two sulfur terminals of the linear-shaped with two lone pairs (in total four electrons) on each sulfur atoms, their sum of dipole moment is zero due to the CS2 molecule’s bond dipole moment and less electron polarity to the sulfur atoms. Because each two C-S bonds polarity canceled each other in the CS2 molecule due to the linear geometry of the CS2 molecule. The carbon disulfide(CS2) molecule is classified as a nonpolar molecule.

The molecule of carbon disulfide (with linear molecular geometry) is tilted, the bond angles between sulfur and carbon are 180 degrees. It has a difference in electronegativity values between sulfur and carbon atoms, with central carbon’s pull being the same as two-terminal sulfur’s in the CS2 molecule. But they canceled each other due to the symmetrical linear structure with two lone pairs in the two sulfur atoms in the molecular geometry of the CS2 molecule.

How to draw CS2 Lewis Structure?

As a result, it has the zero dipole moment. The CS2 molecule has a zero dipole moment due to an equal charge distribution of negative and positive charges. But both sulfur and carbon atoms fall on the oxygen and carbon family groups in the periodic table respectively. The sulfur atom is a lightly higher electronegative value than carbon in the CS2 molecule. The CS2 molecule has the net dipole moment of 0D value in the ground state energy level.

CS2 molecule has two C-S double bonds. Its dipole moment in the ground state is totally different as compared with the excited state. If it absorbs light may be from visible or UV light. It undergoes pi to pi star and n to pi star transition from ground state energy level to excited state energy level. In the excited state energy level, the CS2 molecule shows a definite dipole moment. But it is very dynamic in nature.

Molecules can be classified as polar or nonpolar. The molecule polar behaves in a different manner as compared to nonpolar.

Overview: CS2 Lewis Structure

The central atom is carbon, which is bordered on two terminals with sulfur atoms( in linear geometry), and no lone pairs on the central carbon atom in the linear molecular geometry. Carbon has four outermost valence electrons, indicating that it possesses four electrons in its outermost shell, whereas sulfur has six valence electrons in its outermost shell. To complete the octet of the sulfur atom requires two valence electrons on each of their outermost shell.

Two sulfur atoms establish covalent connections with the central carbon atom as a result, leaving the carbon atom with no lone pairs. There are no lone pairs of electrons on the carbon central atom that resists the bond pairs of the two C-S bonds. According to VSEPR theory, the single C-S bond pairs polarity leads the CS2 molecule to take on the linear geometry structure.

The CS2 molecule’s two C-S bonds are arranged in symmetrical polarity order around the linear molecular geometry, giving rise to the CS2 molecular shape. The CS2 molecule has a linear molecular geometry because there is no electrical repulsion between the lone pairs of electrons in sulfur and two double bond pairs(C-S) of the CS2 molecule.

Lewis structure of CS2 has dot electron representative structure. Valence electrons of atoms undergo orbitals mixing in the chemical reactions, gives new types of molecular species of CS2. The molecule is nothing but a bundle of valence electrons from the atoms. But it is converted to bond pairs and lone pairs in the molecular structure.

Electronegative value Difference Calculation of CS2 Molecule:

Sulfur and carbon Electronegative difference in CS2:

The sulfur atom has an electronegativity of 2.58, while carbon has an electronegativity of 2.55 in the CS2 molecule. The difference in electronegativity of sulfur and carbon can be estimated using the method below.

The electronegative value difference between sulfur and carbon in CS2 molecule

Electronegativity value of sulfur = 2.58

Electronegativity value of carbon= 2.55

Difference of electronegativity value between sulfur and carbon in CS2 molecule = 2.58 – 2.55 = 0.03

Electronegativity difference between C-S bond calculation of CS2 molecule

The electronegative difference between sulfur and carbon is less than 0.5. This indicated the bond polarity moves near to nonpolar nature. C-S bond polarity in the CS2 molecule is nonpolar.

Because of this difference in electronegativity of sulfur and carbon atoms, the CS2 molecule’s C-S bonds become nonpolar. The total net dipole moment of the CS2 molecule is zero due to the cancellation of the bond dipole moment in the linear geometry due to the presence of no lone pairs of electrons in the central carbon atom. The electronegativity of an atom is the strength with which it may attract bound electron pairs to its side. The polarity of CS2 is discussed in our previous post.

As a result, the C-S bond’s dipole moment is less due to the low polarization of the bonds and no lone pairs of electrons on carbon, and all C-S bonds’ dipoles are arranged in the symmetrical CS2 molecular geometry. The CS2 molecule has a zero net dipole moment.

The electron dot structure of the CS2 molecule is also known as the CS2 Lewis structure. It determines the number of outermost valence electrons as well as the electrons engaged in the CS2 molecule’s bond formation. The outermost valence electrons of the CS2 molecule must be understood while constructing the Lewis structure of the molecule.

The carbon atom is the middle element in CS2 molecular geometry, with four electrons in its outermost valence electron shell, whereas the sulfur atom has six electrons in its outermost valence electron shell. The sulfur atom has six valence electrons.

The CS2 has a total of 16 valence electrons as a result of the foregoing above-said reasoning. With the core central carbon atom, the two terminals with two sulfur atoms form covalent bonds, leaving the carbon atom with no lone pairs in the middle of linear molecular geometry.

Because two lone pairs on each terminal sulfur atom create interaction with C-S bond pairs(but it is negligible in the ground state of the CS2 molecule). The bond angle of the S=C=S bond in the linear molecular geometry is approximately 180 degrees. This angle is greater than the CH4 molecule bond angle. The C-S bond length is 182pm(picometer).

To sketch the CS2 Lewis structure by following these instructions:

Step-1: CS2 Lewis dot Structure by counting valence electrons on the carbon atom

To calculate the valence electron of each atom in CS2, look for its periodic group from the periodic table. The oxygen and carbon group families, which are the 16th and 14th groups in the periodic table, are both made up of sulfur and carbon atoms respectively. In their outermost shells, carbon and sulfur have four and six valence electrons respectively.

Calculate the total number of valence electrons in the CS2 molecule’s outermost valence shell. The first step is to determine how many electrons are in the CS2 Lewis structure’s outermost valence shell. An electron in an atom’s outermost shell is known as a valence electron. It is represented by dots in the CS2 Lewis diagram. The CS2 molecule’s core carbon atom can be represented as follows:

Total outermost valence shell electron of sulfur atom in CS2= 6

Total outermost valence shell electron of carbon atom in CS2= 4

The CS2 molecule has one central carbon and two sulfur atoms. Then the total outermost valence shell electrons can be calculated as follows

∴ Total outermost valence shell electrons available for CS2 Lewis structure( dot structure) = 4+2*6= 16 valence electrons  in CS2.  

calculation of total valence electron of CS2 molecule

Choose the atom with the least electronegative value atom and insert it in the center of the molecular geometry of CS2. We’ll choose the least electronegative value atom in the CS2 molecule to place in the center of the CS2 Lewis structure diagram in this phase.

But in this case, carbon is slightly less electronegative than sulfur. So that carbon stays in the central molecular structure. The electronegativity value in periodic groups grows from left to right in the periodic table and drops from top to bottom.

How to draw CS2 Lewis Structure?

The first step is to put four valence electrons around the carbon atom as given in the figure.

Step-2: Lewis Structure of CS2 for counting valence electrons around the terminal sulfur atoms

As a result, carbon is the first atom in the periodic table’s carbon family group. Sulfur is the second member of the oxygen family. It is the second element in the oxygen family on the periodic table. The electronegative value of the sulfur atom is slightly higher than that of the carbon atom in the CS2 molecule. Furthermore, carbon has a four-electron limit since it is the less electronegative element in the CS2 molecule.

In the CS2 Lewis structure diagram, the carbon atom can be the center atom of the molecule. As a result, central carbon in the CS2 Lewis structure, with all two sulfur atoms arranged in a linear geometry.

How to draw CS2 Lewis Structure?

Add valence electron around the sulfur atom, as given in the figure.

Step-3: Lewis dot Structure for CS2 generated from step-1 and step-2

Connect the exterior and core central atom of the CS2 molecule with two double C-S bonds. In this stage, use two sulfur atoms on the outside of the CS2 molecule to the central carbon atom in the middle.

Count how many electrons from the outermost valence shell have been used in the CS2 structure so far. Each C-S double bond carries two electrons because each carbon atom is connected to two sulfur atoms by two C-S double bonds. Bond pairings of C-S are what they’re called.

So, out of the total of 16 valence electrons available for the CS2 Lewis structure, we used eight electrons for the CS2 molecule’s two C-S double bonds. The CS2 molecule has no lone pairs of electrons in the central carbon atom.

Place the valence electrons in the C-S bond pairs starting with the core carbon, two sulfur atoms in the CS2 molecule. In the CS2 Lewis structure diagram, we always begin by introducing valence electrons from the central carbon atom(in step1). As a result, wrap around the central carbon atom’s bond pair valence electrons first (see figure for step1).

The carbon atom in the molecule gets only 8 electrons around its molecular structure. This central carbon atom is octet stable. But it has no lone pairs. Sulfur compound(S8) is a yellowish solid in nature. when sulfur undergoes sublimation from the solid-state to the gaseous state. But Sulfur is a very old anti-biotic for external uses.

Coal is the natural form of carbon. It is used as one of the classic fuels for industrial uses. There are different types of carbon. Graphite is another form of carbon. Graphite formed due to aggregation of carbon resonating molecular layer. In the higher end, diamond comes on the list. Its strength is very high.

Sulfur requires 8 electrons in its outermost valence shell to complete the molecular octet stability, 8 electrons bond pairs in two C-S double bonds, and no lone pairs in the central carbon atom. Two lone pairs of electrons on the sulfur atoms of the CS2 molecule are placed in a linear geometry. Sulfur already shares 8 electrons to the two C-S double bonds. Then place the valence electron in the sulfur atoms, it placed around six electrons on each atom(step-2). There are 8 valence electrons placed around two sulfur atoms as lone pair of electrons.

We’ve positioned 8 electrons around the two-terminal sulfur atoms(step-3), which is represented by a dot, in the CS2 molecular structure above. The sulfur atom completes its molecular octet stability in the CS2 molecule because it possesses 8 electrons in its (two C-S double bonds) bond pairs with two sulfur in the outermost valence shell.

How to draw CS2 Lewis Structure?

Count how many outermost valence shell electrons have been used so far using the CS2 Lewis structure. Two electron bond pairs are shown as dots in the CS2 chemical structure, whereas two single bonds each contain four electrons. The outermost valence shell electrons of the CS2 molecule(bond pairs) are 8 as a result of the calculation. The total valence electron in a sulfur atom is 8.

So far, we’ve used 16 of the CS2 Lewis structure’s total 16 outermost valence shell electrons. no lone pairs of electrons on the carbon atom in the linear geometry of the CS2 molecule.

Complete the middle carbon atom stability and, if necessary, apply a covalent bond. The central carbon atom undergoes octet stability(due to two double bond pairs of electrons).

The core atom in the CS2 Lewis structure is carbon, which is bonded to the two sulfur atoms by double bonds (two C-S). With the help of two double bonds, it already shares 8 electrons. As a result, the sulfur follows the octet rule and has 8 electrons surrounding it on the two terminals of the CS2 molecule’s linear geometry.

How to calculate the formal charge on sulfur and carbon atoms in CS2 Lewis Structure?

Calculating formal charge on the carbon of CS2 molecule:

The formal charge on the CS2 molecule’s carbon central atom often corresponds to the actual charge on that carbon central atom. In the following computation, the formal charge will be calculated on the central carbon atom of the CS2 Lewis dot structure.

To calculate the formal charge on the central carbon atom of the CS2 molecule by using the following formula:

The formal charge on the carbon atom of CS2 molecule= (V. E(C)– L.E(C) – 1/2(B.E))

V.E (C) = Valence electron in a carbon atom of CS2 molecule

L.E(C) = Lone pairs of an electron in the carbon atom of the CS2 molecule.

B.E = Bond pair electron in C atom of CS2 molecule

calculation of formal charge on carbon atom in CS2 molecule

The carbon core atom (two double bonds connected to two sulfur atoms ) of the CS2 molecule has four valence electrons, no lone pairs of electrons(zero electrons), and 8 bonding pairing valence electrons. Put these values for the carbon atom in the formula above.

Formal charge on carbon atom of CS2 molecule = (4- 0-(8/2)) =0

In the Lewis structure of CS2, the formal charge on the central carbon atom is zero.

Calculating formal charge on the sulfur of CS2 molecule:

The formal charge on the CS2 molecule’s sulfur terminal atom often corresponds to the actual charge on that sulfur terminal atom. In the following computation, the formal charge will be calculated on the terminal sulfur atom of the CS2 Lewis dot structure.

To calculate the formal charge on the terminal sulfur atom of the CS2 molecule by using the following formula:

The formal charge on the sulfur atom of CS2 molecule= (V. E(S)– L.E(S) – 1/2(B.E))

V.E (S) = Valence electron in a sulfur atom of CS2 molecule

L.E(S) = Lone pairs of an electron in the sulfur atom of the CS2 molecule.

B.E = Bond pair electron in S atom of CS2 molecule

calculation of formal charge on sulfur atom in CS2 molecule

The sulfur terminal atom (one double bond connected to one carbon atom) of the CS2 molecule has six valence electrons, two lone pairs of electrons(four electrons), and 4 bonding pairing valence electrons. Put these values for the sulfur atom in the formula above.

Formal charge on sulfur atom of CS2 molecule = (6- 4-(4/2)) =0

In the Lewis structure of CS2, the formal charge on the terminal sulfur atom is zero.

Summary:

In this post, we discussed the method to construct the CS2 Lewis structure. First, the valence electrons are placed around the carbon atom. Second, place the valence electron on the sulfur atoms. Finally, when we combined the first and second steps. It gives CS2 Lewis structure. Need to remember that, if you follow the above-said method, you can construct molecular dot structure very easily.

What is the CS2 Lewis structure?

CS2 Lewis structure is dot representation

What is the formal charge on the CS2 Lewis structure?

Zero charges on the CS2 molecular structure

The polarity of the molecules

The polarity of the molecules are listed as follows

Lewis Structure and Molecular Geometry

Lewis structure and molecular geometry of molecules are listed below

External Reference:

Information on carbon disulfide(CS2) molecule

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