Definition of acid:
Examples for the definition of acid:
When you come to the mineral acid category such as HCl, H₂SO₄, etc. It loses its proton in the aqueous environment. For example, the HCl molecule loses its proton in the water environment and forms a positive hydrogen ion. But now, the proton contains only one nucleus without an electron.
Hydrogen is the only molecule in the periodic table which contains only one proton in the nucleus. So that means, its form in the subatomic nature. This is not the correct statement. Then, what happens?
Hydronium ion formation in acid:
Hydrogen positive ion goes on bind with the water molecule in the environment. These ions are called hydronium ions. Hydronium ions are positive in charge. The definition of acid varies with different environmental conditions.
It is a little bigger than the water molecule in size. But due to its ionic nature, hydronium ion moves faster in the aqueous environment as compared with the huge crowd of water molecules. This process is called the mobility of ions in the aqueous environment.
But the same process under the externally applied voltage with the help of two electrodes is called conductivity of hydronium ions. Whether pure water conducts electricity? No. It won’t conduct an electric current.
But, it depends on up to what applied voltage, if you increase the external voltage, the water molecule undergoes dissociation. This dissociation gives oxygen and hydrogen gaseous molecules as an outcome of this electrolysis.
During this electrolysis process under the applied voltage, water molecules undergo turbulence before their dissociation. In this process, it conducts electric current.
The conductivity of an aqueous solution does not only depend on the presence of ions. It also depends on the applied voltage between the electrodes. A similar effect, we can observe from sulphuric acid also.
Acid is further classified into strong and weak. The above-discussed acids come under the strong category. Why does it come that? This acid releases its hydrogen ions at a faster rate to the aqueous environment. That is the main reason, these acids are kept in that category.
What is a weak acid? The acid which releases its proton slowly into the aqueous environment is called weak acid.
Difference between organic and inorganic acids:
Are these inorganic molecules only consider as an acid? In chemistry, we deal with three categories as Inorganic, Organic, and Hybrid materials. There is an acid in organic molecules also.
For example, acetic acid is an example of a weak acid. It releases its proton very slowly to the aqueous environment due to the association property of the molecule.
We have some strong acid in them also. Acetic acid contains both an alkyl part and an acid functional part. The alkyl part of CH3 is replaced with more electronegative atoms such as fluorine. It gives CF3 a fluorinated form. This entire group act as an electron-withdrawing characteristic.
It tries to pull the electrons from other parts of the same molecule. These entire phenomena induce the faster release of proton ions into the water. That’s how it becomes strong acid.
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