Old Method for Nanodiamond synthesis: [Detonation Nanodiamond]
Detonation Nanodiamond was the oldest and first classical method of synthesis in the laboratory. Detonation Nanodiamond carried out in the closed-shell with the help of explosives like TNT etc. A lot of impurities were also synthesized along with a detonation nanodiamond method. Carbon impurities like amorphous form, fragmented graphites, etc are the major impurities from detonation nanodiamond synthesis.
The major application of these nanodiamonds from the detonation nanodiamond method goes to the manufacture of high-pressure withstanding greases. So we no need to worry about the purities of the nanodiamond. Now we are moving to the application in the field of cosmetics, drug delivery systems, etc.
So we need the best alternative
New Methods for Nanodiamond Synthesis:
Nanodiamonds are one of the several classes of nanocarbon allotrope that have excellent potential for the different varieties of material applications in the field of metallurgy, electronics, spectroscopic imaging application due to their color centers and healthcare application from cosmetics to medicine. Artificially it can be synthesis from an innovative science research project. Depends on the properties of nanodiamond, it is used in diverse applications ranging from quantum computing, biological imaging with drug delivery applications and electronic devices, to composite materials for multiple applications. Nanodiamond has been found in meteorites, protoplanetary nebulae, and interstellar dust, in deeper space in a natural way. But we can’t use it.
In the laboratory, nanodiamond is manufactured in residues of detonation of the bulk diamond by using explosives in the bombshell method. In recent years, a few preparation methods for the production of nanocrystalline diamond films on a laboratory scale had been reported as follows.,
- It synthesized by using bomb shell detonation techniques
- High-energy ball milling from bulk diamond
- Plasma-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (PACVD)
- Laser ablation by using high energy intense laser
- Autoclave synthesis in the form of solvothermal and hydrothermal methods
- High energetic molecular or atomic ion irradiation on a graphite surface
- Highly accelerated electron irradiation of carbon and ultrasound cavitation with nanocavity.
Microwave-assisted plasma combustion of hydrocarbon and chlorohydrocarbon as a molecular precursor to form nanodiamond film was done in the year 1991 by M.Frenklach et al., here silane and diborane were used as a substrate to induce the growth of nanodiamond on the selective substrate. Substrate played a very important role in the synthesis of nanodiamond. It traps or settles or deposit the high energetic molecular ions. From their research study, they confirmed that the formation of nanodiamond film appeared only in the presence of diborane, which is due to the structural property of diborane.
Microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) by using CO-H2 and CH4-CO2 with some more composition as a precursor was done in the year 2009 by L.Vandenbulcke et al., for the formation of nanodiamond film on a silicon wafer to deposit the nanodiamond.
Microplasma dissociation of ethanol vapor (fuel gas) as a precursor to synthesize nanodiamond was carried out recently in the year 2013 by A.Kumar et al., in which they trapped the dusty nanodiamond powder in the confined space by using nano silicon glass fiber filter but their processing time was more than 100 hrs. This type of plasma torch, which micro in size.
Why is the researcher using plasma techniques for nanodiamond synthesis?
In deep space, nanodiamond dust formed in the presence of plasma. It is one of the unique states of the material. In this state, molecules or atomic clusters are fragmented as the ion. The collision between stars gives confined masses, blackhole, etc. At the same time, it creates plasmic dust.
How to create confine space and plasma in the lab?
You can easily make the plasma set up in the laboratory. Simple way, if you apply a high voltage between copper electrodes in specific separation, it gives intense plasma blue torch in the presence of fuel gases with different combinations.
How do choose fuel gases for plasma experiments to make nanodiamond?
Nanodiamond is nothing but carbon in small dimensions. So we need a carbon source. The best one available in the market is fuel gas. Any combination of fuel gas you can use. If we pass these fuel gas through the plasma electrodes, why is the researcher using plasma techniques for nanodiamond synthesis? It creates high energetic fragmented carbon ions. Now we need something to trap these ions.
How do convert high energetic carbon ion into nanodiamond?
We need something to trap these carbon ions. That is the reason all of them used the substrate as a carbon ion trapper. If it deposits or confines into a small space, nanodiamonds will grow at a faster rate.
Where do you keep the substrate to grow nanodiamond?
It is very simple. We keep in between the electrodes. If the copper electrodes are separated by a 30cm distance, then we can keep the substrate in the middle.
What is the material used in the substrate for making nanodiamonds?
You can use the following material that already people have done. Silicon wafer, silicone fiber, diborane, silane, conductive polymeric substrate are used for nanodiamond growth.
You can try the following substrate material under the plasmic condition. The material can use as a substrate such as Metal polymeric porous composite material, Metal-Organic Framework (MOF), metal ion-doped covalent organic framework (COF), new recent material porous MOF- polymeric gel ( just use organic gel, don’t use hydrogel).
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1. M.Frenklach et al, Induced nucleation of diamond powder.
2. L.Vandenbulcke et al., Nanodiamonds in dusty low-pressure plasmas.
3. A. Kumar et al., Formation of nanodiamonds at near-ambient conditions via microplasma dissociation of ethanol vapor.