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How to draw a SiCl4 Lewis Structure? - Science Education and Tutorials

How to draw a SiCl4 Lewis Structure?

Drawing SiCl4 Lewis Structure is very easy. Here in this post, we described step by step method to construct SiCl4 Lewis Structure.

How to draw a SiCl4 Lewis Structure?

Key Points To Consider When drawing The SiCl4 Lewis Structure

A three-step approach for drawing the SiCl4 Lewis Structure can be used. The first step is to sketch the Lewis structure of the SiCl4 molecule, to add valence electron around the silicon atom; the second step is to valence electron to the Chlorine atom, and the final step is to combine the step1 and step2 to get the SiCl4 Lewis Structure.

The SiCl4 Lewis structure is a diagram that illustrates the number of valence electrons and bond electron pairs in the SiCl4 molecule. The geometry of the SiCl4 molecule can then be predicted using the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR Theory), which states that molecules will choose a SiCl4 geometrical shape in which the electrons have from one another.

Finally, you must add their bond polarities to compute the strength of the Si-Cl bond (dipole moment properties of the SiCl4 molecule). The silicon-Chlorine bonds in silicon tetrachloride(SiCl4), for example, are polarised toward the more electronegative silicon, and because both bonds have the same size, their sum is zero due to the SiCl4 molecule’s bond dipole moment, and the SiCl4 molecule is classified as a nonpolar molecule.

The molecule of silicon tetrachloride (with tetrahedral geometry) is tilted at 109 degrees and has a difference in electronegativity values between Chlorine and silicon atoms, with Chlorine’s pull being roughly equal to silicon’s. As a result, it has no dipole moment indefinitely. The SiCl4 molecule has no dipole moment due to an equal charge distribution of negative and positive charges.

How to draw the SiCl4 Lewis Structure:

The centre atom is silicon, which is bordered on all sides by four Chlorine atoms. Silicon has four outermost valence electrons, indicating that it possesses four electrons in its outermost shell, whereas Chlorine only has seven. To complete the octet of the silicon atom, a silicon core atom requires four electrons. If you’re interested in learning more about the silicon octet rule, please see in our previous post.

Four Chlorine atoms establish covalent connections with the silicon atom as a result, leaving the silicon atom without any lone pairs. There are no lone pairs on the silicon core atom that resist the bond pairs of the four Si-Cl. According to VSEPR theory, no electronic repulsion leads the SiCl4 molecule to take on a tetrahedral shape like CH3Cl, CH3F, or CH2Cl2.

The SiCl4 molecule’s Si-Cl bonds are arranged in a symmetrical order around the tetrahedral geometry, giving rise to the tetrahedral shape. The SiCl4 molecule has a tetrahedral geometry because there is no electrical repulsion between them.

Electronegative difference calculation SiCl4 molecule:

Silicon has an electronegativity of 1.9, while Chlorine has an electronegativity of 3.16 in the SiCl4 molecule. The difference in electronegativity can be estimated using the method below.

The electronegative value difference between silicon and Chlorine

Electronegativity value of Chlorine= 3.16

Electronegativity value of silicon= 1.9

Difference of electronegativity value between Chlorine and silicon= 3.16 – 1.9 =1.26

Electronegativity difference between Si-Cl bond calculation of SiCl4 molecule

Due to the difference in electronegativity value of greater than 0.5, the Si-Cl bond of the SiCl4 molecule becomes polar. Because of this difference in electronegativity, the SiCl4 molecule’s Si-Cl bond becomes polar. But it cancels each other. The electronegativity of an atom is the strength with which it may attract bound electron pairs to its side.

As a result, the Si-Cl bond’s dipole moment is virtually negligible, and all Si-Cl bonds’ dipoles are centered around the tetrahedral geometry. The SiCl4 molecule’s total dipole moment is predicted to be 0 D. It has a partial negative charge for silicon atoms and a partial positive charge for Chlorine atoms.

The electron dot structure of the SiCl4 molecule is also known as the SiCl4 Lewis Structure. It determines the number of outermost valence electrons as well as the electrons engaged in the SiCl4 molecule’s bond formation. The outermost valence electrons of the SiCl4 molecule must be understood while considering the Lewis structure of the molecule.

The silicon atom is the middle element in molecular geometry, with four electrons in its outermost valence electron shell, whereas the Chlorine atom has seven electrons in its outermost valence electron shell.

The SiCl4 molecule has a total of 32 valence electrons as a result of the foregoing reasoning. With the core silicon atom, the four Chlorine atoms form covalent bonds, leaving the silicon atom with no lone pairs on it.

The tetrahedral geometry and structure of the molecules are similar to that of the chloroform (CH3Cl) molecule because no lone pairs of central silicon atoms create interaction with Si-Cl bond pairs. The bond angle of the Cl-Si-Cl bond is approximately 109 degrees. The Si-Cl bond has a 108-minute bond length (picometer).

To sketch the SiCl4 Lewis structure by following these instructions:

Step-1: Adding valence electron on the silicon atom

Calculate the total number of electrons in the SiCl4 molecule’s outermost valence shell. The first step is to determine how many electrons are in the SiCl4 Lewis Structure’s outermost valence shell. An electron in an atom’s outermost shell is known as a valence electron. It is represented by dots in the SiCl4 Lewis Structure diagram. The SiCl4 molecule’s core silicon atom can be represented as follows:

To calculate the valence electron of each atom in SiCl4, look for its periodic group. The silicon and Chlorine families, which are the first and 14th groups in the periodic table, are both made up of silicon and Chlorine atoms. In their outermost shells, silicon and Chlorine have four and seven valence electrons, respectively.

How to draw a SiCl4 Lewis Structure?

Because silicon and Chlorine are members of the periodic table’s silicon and halogen family groups, their valence electrons are four and one, respectively.

Total outermost valence shell electron of silicon atom in SiCl4= 4

Total outermost valence shell electron of Chlorine atom in SiCl4= 1

The SiCl4 molecule has one central silicon atom and four Chlorine atoms. Then the total outermost valence shell electrons can be calculated as follows

∴ Total outermost valence shell electrons available for SiCl4 Lewis Structure( dot structure) = 4 +4*7= 32 valence electrons  in SiCl4    

calculation of total valence electron of SiCl4 molecule

Choose the atom with the least electronegative charge and insert it in the molecular geometry of SiCl4. We’ll choose the least electronegative atom in the SiCl4 molecule to place in the centre of the SiCl4 Lewis structure diagram in this phase. The electronegativity value in periodic groups grows from left to right in the periodic table and drops from top to bottom.

Step-2: Adding valence electron on Chlorine atom in the SiCl4 molecule

As a result, Chlorine is the second atom in the periodic table’s halogen family group. Silicon is the second member of the silicon family. The electronegative value of a Chlorine atom is lower than that of a silicon atom. Furthermore, Chlorine has a one-electron limit since silicon is the most electronegative element in the SiCl4 molecule.

How to draw a SiCl4 Lewis Structure?

In a SiCl4 Lewis Structure diagram, the silicon atom can be the centre atom. As a result, central silicon in the SiCl4 Lewis Structure, with all four Chlorines arranged around the tetrahedral geometry.

Step-3: Combining step1 and step2 to get step3 for SiCl4 dot structure

Connect the exterior and core atoms of the SiCl4 molecule with four single bonds (Si-Cl). In this stage, use four single bonds to connect all four Chlorine atoms on the outside of the SiCl4 molecule to the central silicon atom in the middle.

Count how many electrons from the outermost valence shell have been used in the SiCl4 structure so far. Each Si-Cl bond carries two electrons because each silicon atom is connected to four Chlorine atoms by four Si-Cl bonds. Bond pairings are what they’re called.

So, out of the total of 32 valence electrons available for the SiCl4 Lewis Structure, we used 8 for the SiCl4 molecule’s four single (Si-Cl) bonds. The SiCl4 molecule has lost all of its valence electrons. We don’t need to put the extra electron in the molecular geometry of SiCl4.

Place the valence electrons in the Si-Cl bond pairs starting with the core silicon and three Chlorine atoms in the SiCl4 molecule. In the SiCl4 Lewis Structure diagram, we always begin by introducing valence electrons from the central silicon atom. As a result, wrap around the central silicon atom’s bond pair valence electrons first.

Silicon requires 8 electrons in its outermost valence shell to complete its octet. Silicon already shares eight electrons thanks to the four single bonds.

We’ve positioned eight electrons around the central silicon atom, which is represented by a dot, in the SiCl4 molecular structure above. The silicon atom completes its octet stability in the SiCl4 molecule because it possesses 8 electrons in its outermost valence shell.

How to draw a SiCl4 Lewis Structure?

Count how many outermost valence shell electrons have been used so far using the SiCl4 Lewis Structure. Eight electrons are shown as dots in the SiCl4 chemical structure, whereas four single bonds each contain two electrons. The outermost valence shell electrons of the SiCl4 molecule are 4 + 4= 8 as a result of the calculation.

So far, we’ve used eight of the SiCl4 Lewis structure’s total eight outermost valence shell electrons.

Complete the middle silicon atom octet and, if necessary, apply a covalent bond. The core atom in the SiCl4 Lewis Structure is silicon, which is bonded to the Chlorine atoms by four single bonds (Si-Cl). With the help of four single bonds, it already shares eight electrons. As a result, silicon follows the octet rule and has eight electrons surrounding it.

How to calculate the formal charge on the silicon atom in SiCl4 Lewis Structure?

The formal charge on the SiCl4 molecule’s silicon central atom often corresponds to the actual charge on that silicon central atom. In the following computation, the formal charge will be calculated on the central silicon atom of the SiCl4 Lewis dot structure.

To calculate the formal charge on the central silicon atom of SiCl4 molecule by using the following formula:

The formal charge on the silicon atom of SiCl4 molecule= (V. E(Si)– L.E(Si) – 1/2(B.E))

V.E (Si) = Valence electron in silicon atom of SiCl4 molecule

L.E(Si) = Lone pairs of an electron in the silicon atom of the SiCl4 molecule.

B.E = Bond pair electron in C atom of SiCl4 molecule

calculation of formal charge on silicon atom in SiCl4 molecule

The silicon core atom (four single bonds connected to Chlorines) of the SiCl4 molecule has four valence electrons, zero lone pair electrons, and eight bonding electrons. Put these values for the silicon atom in the formula above.

Formal charge on silicon atom of SiCl4 molecule = (4- 0-(8/2)) =0

In the Lewis structure of SiCl4, the formal charge on the central silicon atom is zero.

Summary:

In this post, we discussed the method to construct SiCl4 Lewis Structure. Need to remember that, if you follow the above-said method, you can construct molecular dot structure very easily.

What is SiCl4 Lewis Structure?

SiCl4 Lewis structure is dot representation

What is the formal charge on SiCl4 Lewis Structure?

Zero charges on the SiCl4 molecular structure

The polarity of the molecules

Polarity of the molecules are listed as follows

Lewis Structure and Molecular Geometry

Lewis structure and molecular geometry of molecules are listed below

External Reference:

Information on SiCl4

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