The iodine trichloride chemical formula is ICl3. Drawing ICl3 Lewis Structure is very easy to by using the following method. Here in this post, we described step by step method to construct ICl3 Lewis Structure. The iodine and chlorine elements come as the member of the halogen family group from the periodic table. The valence electrons in iodine and chlorine are seven. The branch of halogen chemistry is used to make chemicals reagents for fluorination reactions.
Key Points To Consider When Drawing The ICl3 Electron Dot Structure
A three-step approach for drawing the ICl3 Lewis structure can be used. The first step is to sketch the Lewis structure of the ICl3 molecule, to add valence electrons around the iodine atom; the second step is to add valence electrons to the three chlorine atoms, and the final step is to combine the step1 and step2 to get the ICl3 Lewis Structure.
The ICl3 Lewis structure is a diagram that illustrates the number of valence electrons and bond electron pairs in the ICl3 molecule. The geometry of the ICl3 molecule can then be predicted using the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR Theory), which states that molecules will choose the ICl3 geometrical shape in which the electrons have from one another.
Finally, you must add their bond polarities to compute the strength of the three I-Cl bonds (dipole moment properties of the ICl3 molecule). The iodine-chlorine bonds in iodine trichloride(ICl3), for example, are polarised toward the more electronegative chlorine in ICl3 molecule, and because both bonds have the same size and located around three chlorine terminals of the trigonal bipyramidal with two lone pairs (in total four electron) on the iodine atom, their sum of dipole moment is nonzero due to the ICl3 molecule’s bond dipole moment and more electron polarity to the chlorine atoms. Because each three I-Cl bonds polarity not canceled each other in the ICl3 molecule. The trifluoro iodine or iodine trichloride(ICl3) molecule is classified as a polar molecule.
The molecule of iodine trichloride (with trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry) is tilted, the bond angles between iodine and chlorine are slightly smaller than 90 degrees. It has a difference in electronegativity values between iodine and chlorine atoms, with central iodine’s pull being less than terminal chlorine’s in the ICl3 molecule. But they canceled each other due to the asymmetrical molecular geometry of the ICl3 molecule.
As a result, it has the nonzero dipole moment. The ICl3 molecule has a nonzero dipole moment due to an unequal charge distribution of negative and positive charges. But both these atoms fall on the halogen family group. The chlorine atom is a more electronegative value than iodine in the ICl3 molecule. The net dipole moment of the ICl3 molecule is smaller than the IF3 molecule.
Molecules can be classified as polar or nonpolar. The molecule polar behaves in a different manner as compared to nonpolar.
Overview: ICl3 Lewis Structure
The central atom is iodine, which is bordered on three terminals with chlorine atoms( in distorted T-shaped or trigonal bipyramidal), and two lone pairs on the central in the trigonal bipyramidal geometry. Iodine has seven outermost valence electrons, indicating that it possesses seven electrons in its outermost shell, whereas chlorine also has seven valence electrons in its outermost shell. To complete the octet of the iodine and chlorine atoms requires one valence electron on each of their outermost shell.
Three chlorine atoms establish covalent connections with the central iodine atom as a result, leaving the iodine atom with two lone pairs. There are two lone pairs of electrons on the iodine central atom that resists the bond pairs of the three I-Cl. According to VSEPR theory, the I-Cl bond pairs polarity lead the ICl3 molecule to take on the distorted T-Shape or trigonal bipyramidal geometry structure.
The ICl3 molecule’s three I-Cl bonds are arranged in unsymmetrical polarity order around the trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry, giving rise to the ICl3 molecular shape. The ICl3 molecule has a distorted T- shaped or trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry because there is electrical repulsion between the lone pairs of electrons in chlorine and three bond pairs(I-Cl) of the ICl3 molecule.
Lewis structure of ICl3 has dot electron representative structure. Valence electrons of atoms undergo orbitals mixing in the chemical reactions, gives new types of molecular species. The molecule is nothing but a bundle of valence electrons from the atoms. But it is converted to bond pairs and lone pairs in the molecular structure.
Electronegative value Difference Calculation of ICl3 Molecule:
Iodine and chlorine Electronegative difference in ICl3:
The iodine atom has an electronegativity of 2.66, while chlorine has an electronegativity of 3.16 in the ICl3 molecule. The difference in electronegativity of iodine and chlorine can be estimated using the method below.
The electronegative value difference between iodine and chlorine
Electronegativity value of iodine = 2.66
Electronegativity value of chlorine= 3.16
Difference of electronegativity value between iodine and chlorine= 3.16 – 2.66=0.5Electronegativity difference between I-Cl bond calculation of ICl3 molecule
The electronegative difference between iodine and chlorine is greater than 0.5. This indicated the bond polarity moves near to polar nature. I-Cl bond polarity in the ICl3 molecule is polar.
Because of this difference in electronegativity of iodine and chlorine atoms, the ICl3 molecule’s I-Cl bond becomes polar. The total net dipole moment of the ICl3 molecule is nonzero due to the no cancellation of the bond dipole moment in the distorted T-shaped or trigonal bipyramidal geometry. The electronegativity of an atom is the strength with which it may attract bound electron pairs to its side. The polarity of ICl3 is discussed in our previous post.
As a result, the I-Cl bond’s dipole moment is high due to the polarization of the bonds and two lone pairs of electrons on iodine, and all I-Cl bonds’ dipoles are arranged in the asymmetrical ICl3 molecular geometry. The ICl3 molecule’s total dipole moment is predicted to be lesser than the BrF3 molecule.
The electron dot structure of the ICl3 molecule is also known as the ICl3 Lewis structure. It determines the number of outermost valence electrons as well as the electrons engaged in the ICl3 molecule’s bond formation. The outermost valence electrons of the ICl3 molecule must be understood while considering the Lewis structure of the molecule.
The iodine atom is the middle element in ICl3 molecular geometry, with seven electrons in its outermost valence electron shell, whereas the chlorine atom has seven electrons in its outermost valence electron shell. The chlorine atom has seven valence electrons.
The ICl3 has a total of 28 valence electrons as a result of the foregoing above-said reasoning. With the core central iodine atom, the three terminals with three chlorine atoms form covalent bonds, leaving the iodine atom with two lone pairs in the middle of distorted T-shaped or trigonal bipyramidal geometry.
Because lone pair on the terminal chlorine atom creates interaction with I-Cl bond pairs(but it is negligible). The bond angle of the Cl-I-Cl bond in the distorted T- shaped or trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry is approximately smaller than 90 degrees. This angle is smaller than the CH4 molecule bond angle. The I-Cl bond length of the ICl3 molecule is longer than the I-F bond length in the IF3 molecule.
To sketch the ICl3 Lewis structure by following these instructions:
Step-1: ICl3 Lewis dot Structure by counting valence electrons on the iodine atom
To calculate the valence electron of each atom in ICl3, look for its periodic group from the periodic table. The halogen group families, which are the 17th group in the periodic table, are both made up of iodine and chlorine atoms. In their outermost shells, chlorine and iodine have seven valence electrons.
Calculate the total number of valence electrons in the ICl3 molecule’s outermost valence shell. The first step is to determine how many electrons are in the ICl3 Lewis structure’s outermost valence shell. An electron in an atom’s outermost shell is known as a valence electron. It is represented by dots in the ICl3 Lewis diagram. The ICl3 molecule’s core iodine atom can be represented as follows:
Total outermost valence shell electron of iodine atom in ICl3= 7
Total outermost valence shell electron of chlorine atom in ICl3= 7
The molecule has one central iodine and three chlorine atoms. Then the total outermost valence shell electrons can be calculated as follows
∴ Total outermost valence shell electrons available for ICl3 Lewis structure( dot structure) = 7+3*7=28 valence electrons in ICl3.calculation of total valence electron of ICl3 molecule
Choose the atom with the least electronegative value atom and insert it in the center of the molecular geometry of ICl3. We’ll choose the least electronegative value atom in the ICl3 molecule to place in the center of the ICl3 Lewis structure diagram in this phase. The electronegativity value in periodic groups grows from left to right in the periodic table and drops from top to bottom.
The first step is to put seven valence electrons around the iodine atom as given in the figure.
Step-2: Lewis Structure of ICl3 for counting valence electrons around the terminal chlorine atoms
As a result, iodine is the fourth atom in the periodic table’s halogen family group. Chlorine is the second member of the halogen family. The electronegative value of the chlorine atom is higher than that of the iodine atom in the ICl3 molecule. Furthermore, chlorine has a seven electrons limit since iodine is the less electronegative element in the ICl3 molecule.
In the ICl3 Lewis structure diagram, the iodine atom can be the center atom of the molecule. As a result, central iodine in the ICl3 Lewis structure, with all three chlorine atoms arranged in distorted T-shaped or trigonal bipyramidal geometry.
Add valence electrons around the chlorine atom, as given in the figure.
Step-3: Lewis dot Structure for ICl3 generated from step-1 and step-2
Connect the exterior and core central atom of the ICl3 molecule with three single I-Cl bonds. In this stage, use three chlorine atoms on the outside of the ICl3 molecule to the central iodine atom in the middle.
Count how many electrons from the outermost valence shell have been used in the ICl3 structure so far. Each I-Cl bond carries two electrons because each iodine atom is connected to three chlorine atoms by three I-Cl bonds. Bond pairings of I-Cl are what they’re called.
So, out of the total of 28 valence electrons available for the ICl3 Lewis structure, we used 6 electrons for the ICl3 molecule’s three I-Cl bonds. The ICl3 molecule has two lone pairs of electrons in the central iodine atom.
Place the valence electrons in the I-Cl bond pairs starting with the core iodine, three chlorine atoms in the ICl3 molecule. In the ICl3 Lewis structure diagram, we always begin by introducing valence electrons from the central iodine atom(in step1). As a result, wrap around the central iodine atom’s bond pair valence electrons first (see figure for step1).
The iodine atom in the molecule gets only six electrons around its molecular structure. This central iodine atom is extra octet stable. But it has two lone pairs. Iodine (I2) is a brownish vaporize solid in nature. when iodine acted as an iodinating agent, it is used as a chemical reagent. But ICl3 is used as a fluorinating agent in organic chemistry (this decreases the chemical reactivity).
Iodine requires 10 electrons in its outermost valence shell to complete the molecular extra octet stability, 6 electrons bond pairs in three I-Cl bonds. Then lone pairs of electrons on the chlorine atoms of the ICl3 molecule are placed in a distorted T-shaped or trigonal bipyramidal geometry. Iodine already shares six electrons to the three I-Cl bonds. Then place the valence electron in the chlorine atoms, it placed around seven electrons on each atom(step-2). 18 valence electrons placed around chlorine atoms as lone pairs of electrons.
We’ve positioned 18 electrons around the terminal chlorine atoms(step-3), which is represented by a dot, in the ICl3 molecular structure above. The iodine atom completes its molecular extra octet stability in the ICl3 molecule because it possesses six electrons in its (three I-Cl) bond pairs with three chlorine in the outermost valence shell.
Count how many outermost valence shell electrons have been used so far using the ICl3 Lewis structure. Three electron bond pairs are shown as dots in the ICl3 chemical structure, whereas three single bonds each contain two electrons. The outermost valence shell electrons of the ICl3 molecule(bond pairs) are six as a result of the calculation.
So far, we’ve used 28 of the ICl3 Lewis structure’s total 28 outermost valence shell electrons. Two lone pairs of electrons on the iodine atom in the distorted T structure or trigonal bipyramidal of the ICl3 molecule.
Complete the middle iodine atom stability and, if necessary, apply a covalent bond. The central iodine atom undergoes extra octet stability(due to two lone pairs of electrons).
The core atom in the ICl3 Lewis structure is iodine, which is bonded to the three chlorine atoms by single bonds (three I-Cl). With the help of three single bonds, it already shares six electrons. As a result, the iodine follows the extra octet rule and has six electrons surrounding it on the three terminals of the ICl3 molecule’s trigonal bipyramidal geometry.
How to calculate the formal charge on iodine and chlorine atoms in ICl3 Lewis Structure?
Calculating formal charge on the iodine of ICl3 molecule:
The formal charge on the ICl3 molecule’s iodine central atom often corresponds to the actual charge on that iodine central atom. In the following computation, the formal charge will be calculated on the central iodine atom of the ICl3 Lewis dot structure.
To calculate the formal charge on the central iodine atom of the ICl3 molecule by using the following formula:
The formal charge on the iodine atom of ICl3 molecule= (V. E(I)– L.E(I) – 1/2(B.E))
V.E (I) = Valence electron in a iodine atom of ICl3 molecule
L.E(I) = Lone pairs of an electron in the iodine atom of the ICl3 molecule.
B.E = Bond pair electron in I atom of ICl3 moleculecalculation of formal charge on iodine atom in ICl3 molecule
The iodine core atom (three single bonds connected to three chlorine atoms ) of the ICl3 molecule has seven valence electrons, two lone pairs of electrons(four electrons), and six bonding pairing valence electrons. Put these values for the iodine atom in the formula above.
Formal charge on iodine atom of ICl3 molecule = (7- 4-(6/2)) =0
In the Lewis structure of ICl3, the formal charge on the central iodine atom is zero.
Calculating formal charge on the chlorine of ICl3 molecule:
The formal charge on the ICl3 molecule’s chlorine terminal atom often corresponds to the actual charge on that chlorine terminal atom. In the following computation, the formal charge will be calculated on the terminal chlorine atom of the ICl3 Lewis dot structure.
To calculate the formal charge on the terminal chlorine atom of the ICl3 molecule by using the following formula:
The formal charge on the chlorine atom of ICl3 molecule= (V. E(Cl)– L.E(Cl) – 1/2(B.E))
V.E (Cl) = Valence electron in a chlorine atom of ICl3 molecule
L.E(Cl) = Lone pairs of an electron in the chlorine atom of the ICl3 molecule.
B.E = Bond pair electron in Cl atom of ICl3 moleculecalculation of formal charge on chlorine atom in ICl3 molecule
The chlorine terminal atom of the ICl3 molecule has seven valence electrons, three lone pairs of electrons(six electrons), and two bonding pairing valence electrons. Put these values for the chlorine atom in the formula above.
Formal charge on chlorine atom of ICl3 molecule = (7- 6-(2/2)) =0
In the Lewis structure of ICl3, the formal charge on the terminal chlorine atom is zero.
In this post, we discussed the method to construct the ICl3 Lewis structure. First, the valence electrons are placed around the iodine atom. Second, place the valence electron on the chlorine atoms. Finally, when we combined the first and second steps. It gives ICl3 Lewis structure. Need to remember that, if you follow above said method, you can construct molecular dot structure very easily.
What is the ICl3 Lewis structure?
ICl3 Lewis structure is dot representation
What is the formal charge on the ICl3 Lewis structure?
Zero charge on the ICl3 molecular structure
The polarity of the molecules
The polarity of the molecules are listed as follows
- Polarity of BeCl2
- Polarity of SF4
- Polarity of CH2Cl2
- Polarity of NH3
- Polarity of XeF4
- Polarity of BF3
- Polarity of NH4+
- Polarity of CHCl3
- Polarity of BrF3
- Polarity of BrF5
- Polarity of SO3
- Polarity of SCl2
- Polarity of PCl3
- Polarity of H2S
- polarity of CS2
- Polarity of NO2+
- Polarity of HBr
- Polarity of HCl
- Polarity of CH3F
- Polarity of SO2
- Polarity of CH4
Lewis Structure and Molecular Geometry
Lewis structure and molecular geometry of molecules are listed below
- CH4 Lewis structure and CH4 Molecular geometry
- BeCl2 Lewis Structure and BeCl2 Molecular geometry
- SF4 Lewis Structure and SF4 Molecular geometry
- CH2Cl2 Lewis Structure and CH2Cl2 Molecular geometry
- NH3 Lewis Structure and NH3 Molecular geometry
- XeF4 Lewis Structure and XeF4 Molecular geometry
- BF3 Lewis Structure and BF3 Molecular geometry
- NH4+ Lewis Structure and NH4+ Molecular geometry
- CHCl3 Lewis Structure and CHCl3 Molecular geometry
- BrF3 Lewis Structure and BrF3 Molecular geometry
- BrF5 Lewis Structure and BrF5 Molecular geometry
- SO3 Lewis Structure and SO3 Molecular geometry
- SCl2 Lewis structure and SCl2 Molecular Geometry
- PCl3 Lewis structure and PCl3 Molecular Geometry
- H2S Lewis structure and H2S Molecular Geometry
- NO2+ Lewis structure and NO2+ Molecular Geometry
- HBr Lewis structure and HBr Molecular Geometry
- CS2 Lewis structure and CS2 Molecular Geometry
- CH3F Lewis structure and CH3F Molecular Geometry
- SO2 Lewis structure and SO2 Molecular Geometry
- HCl Lewis structure and HCl Molecular Geometry
- HF Lewis structure and HF Molecular Geometry
- HI Lewis structure and HI Molecular Geometry
- CO2 Lewis structure and CO2 Molecular Geometry
- SF2 Lewis structure and SF2 Molecular Geometry
- SBr2 Lewis structure and SBr2 Molecular Geometry
- PF3 Lewis structure and PF3 Molecular Geometry
- PBr3 Lewis structure and PBr3 Molecular Geometry
- CH3Cl Lewis structure and CH3Cl Molecular Geometry
- CH3Br Lewis structure and CH3Br Molecular Geometry
- CH3I Lewis structure and CH3I Molecular Geometry
- SCl4 Lewis structure and SCl4 Molecular Geometry
- SBr4 Lewis structure and SBr4 Molecular Geometry
- CH2F2 Lewis structure and CH2F2 Molecular Geometry
- CH2Br2 Lewis structure and CH2Br2 Molecular Geometry
- XeCl4 Lewis structure and XeCl4 Molecular Geometry
- BCl3 Lewis structure and BCl3 Molecular Geometry
- BBr3 Lewis structure and BBr3 Molecular Geometry
- CHF3 Lewis structure and CHF3 Molecular Geometry
- CHBr3 Lewis structure and CHBr3 Molecular Geometry
- ClF3 Lewis structure and ClF3 Molecular Geometry
- IF3 Lewis structure and IF3 Molecular Geometry