Best Overview: Is CH3F Polar or Nonpolar

Fluorine organic compounds are very different in nature. Fluoromethane has the chemical formula CH3F. Carbon, hydrogen, and fluorine atoms belong to the non-metal family group in the periodic table, possess a high electronegativity value. Students used to ask “Is CH3F polar or nonpolar?”, “CH3F Lewis Structure”, “CH3F molecular geometry”, “CH3F bond angle”, and “CH3F polarity”. In this blog post, we are going to discuss the polarity of CH3F in a detailed manner.

CH3F is commonly appearing at ordinary temperatures and pressures, it exists as a colorless gas with a lovely ether-like aroma. CH3F contains one carbon, fluorine, and three hydrogen atoms. Fluoromethane (CH3F) is corrosive to biological tissue and metals, and it is used in refrigeration systems to keep food cool. The carbon atom stays the center of the molecule and the remaining three hydrogen and fluorine atoms. “Is CH3F polar or nonpolar?”, to answer this question, we need a detailed analysis of the polarity of the CH3F molecule.

Because of the tetrahedral form of fluoromethane(CH3F). Carbon has atomic number 6 in the modern periodic table and four outermost valence shell electrons. It comes under the carbon family group. Similarly, fluorine has atomic numbers 9 and seven outermost valence shell electrons. The three hydrogen atom has the atomic number one and one outermost valence shell electron.

CH3F molecule is formed by elements of the hydrogen, carbon, and halogen family group in the periodic table. When CH3F is exposed to air, it absorbs water quickly and produces white vapors that have a distinct ether aroma and are flammable. Fluoromethane (CH3F) can be used as a coolant in refrigeration systems.

Is CH3F polar or nonpolar, then? CH3F (Fluoromethane) is polar due to its tetrahedral geometrical shape caused by the presence of a high electronegativity value fluorine atom. Second, the difference in electronegativity between carbon and fluorine atoms causes the C-F bonds to become polar, causing the entire molecule to become polar as well, resulting in a net dipole moment of the CH3F molecule is 1.61D.

Best Overview: Is CH3F Polar or Nonpolar

Preparation of CH3F

Fluoromethane(CH3F) is a colorless gas with a lovely ether-like aroma. It is created primarily through the fluorination of methane. It is the gas phase reaction, methane in the gas phase, and fluorine in the gas phase. The outcome product is fluoromethane also in the gas phase. Initially, Methane reacted with fluorine gas formed fluoromethane in the presence of UV-light. This reactions are called photcatalytic reaction.

The chemical equation of methane fluorination in the photocatalytic reaction is shown below.

CH4 + F2 ——light—-> CH3F + HF

Preparation of fluoromethane(CH3F)

CH3F Molar Mass Calculation

CH3F has a molecular mass of 34.03 g/mol, which may be computed as follows.

Mol mass of CH3F = 1 * 12 (atomic mass of C) + 3 * 1(atomic mass of H) +1* 19(atomic mass of H)= 34.03 g·mol−1.

CH3F molar mass calculation

The chemical composition of the fluoromethane molecule is 3 hydrogen atoms, 1 fluorine, and 1 carbon atom in the middle.

CH3F Lewis Structure: Is CH3F polar or nonpolar?

The core central atom is carbon, which is flanked by three hydrogens and one fluorine atom. Carbon contains four outermost valence electrons, which means it contains four electrons in its outermost shell, whereas fluorine and hydrogen have seven and one outermost electrons respectively. A fluorine atom is required one electron to complete the octet of fluorine atom. If you want to know about the octet rule of fluorine, please see in our previous post.

As a result of this, both one fluorine and three hydrogen atoms form covalent bonds with the carbon atom, leaving the carbon atom with no lone pairs. The bond pairs of C-F and three C-H are not repelled by no lone pairs on the carbon atom. According to VSEPR theory, no electronic repulsion causes the molecule’s shape to tetrahedral structure, similar to that of the CH3Cl.

The one C-F bond of the CH3F molecule is placed at the top of the tetrahedral geometry, resulting in the tetrahedral form of the CH3F molecule. Because they generate no electrical repulsion among the CH3F molecule, CH3F molecule shows tetrahedral geometry.

Electronegative difference calculation CH3F:

When it comes to the electronegativity value of the CH3F molecule, fluorine has an electronegativity of 3.98, while carbon has an electronegativity of 2.55, and hydrogen has an electronegativity of 2.22. The electronegativity difference can be calculated by the following method.

Electronegative value difference between carbon and fluorine

Electronegativity value of fluorine = 3.98

Electronegativity value of carbon= 2.55

Difference of electronegativity value between fluorine and carbon= 3.98 – 2.55=1.43

Electronegativity difference between C-F bond calculation of CH3F molecule

The electronegative value difference between carbon and hydrogen

Electronegativity value of hydrogen = 2.22

Electronegativity value of carbon= 2.55

Difference of electronegativity value between hydrogen and carbon= 2.55 – 2.22 =0.33

Electronegativity difference between C-H bond calculation of CH3F molecule

The C-F bond of the CH3F molecule becomes polar in nature due to this difference in electronegativity value. The C-H bond of the CH3F molecule becomes nonpolar in nature due to this difference in electronegativity value. The power with which an atom can attract bound electron pairs towards its side is known as the electronegativity of the atom.

As a result of this, the dipole moment of the C-F bond is non zero, and the dipoles of both C-F bond is at the top of the tetrahedral geometry. The total dipole moment of the CH3F molecule is calculated to be 1.61D. Carbon atoms receive a partial positive charge on it, while fluorine atom receive a partial negative charge on it.

CH3F molecule’s electron dot structure is also known as CH3F Lewis structure. It determines the number of outermost valence electrons and the electrons involved in the formation of the CH3F molecule’s bonds. When discussing the Lewis structure of the CH3F molecule, it is necessary to understand the outermost valence electrons of CH3F.

Carbon is the middle element of the molecular geometry, with 4 electrons in its outermost valence electron shell, while fluorine atom is the outermost valence electron shell, with 7 electrons and one electron missing in the shell to complete its octet.

As a result of this above explanation, the CH3F molecule contains a total of 14 valence electrons. The one fluorine and three hydrogen atoms establish covalent connections with the central carbon atom, leaving the carbon atom with no lone pairs on it.

No lone pairs of central carbon atom cause repulsion with C-F and C-H bond pairs, causing the tetrahedral geometry and the shape of the molecules to like that of the chloroform (CH3Cl) molecule. The F-C-H bond has a bond angle of roughly 109.5 degrees. C -F bond has a bond length of 135 pm (picometer) and C -H bond has a bond length of 107 pm (picometer).

To sketch the CH3F Lewis structure by following these instructions:

Step-1: Determine the total number of outermost valence shell electrons in the CH3F molecule. The first step is to figure out how many outermost valence shell electrons there are in the CH3F Lewis structure. A valence electron is one of an atom’s outermost shell electrons. In the CH3F Lewis diagram, it is represented by dots. The central carbon atom of the CH3F molecule can be represented as follows

Look for the periodic group of each atom in CH3F to determine its valence electron. Carbon, hydrogen, and fluorine are both members of the carbon, hydrogen, and halogen family, which is the 1st,14th, and 17th groups in the periodic table respectively. Carbon, hydrogen, and fluorine have four, one, and seven valence electrons in their outermost shell respectively.

Because carbon, hydrogen, and fluorine belong to the carbon, hydrogen, and halogen family group in the periodic table, their valence electrons are four, one, and seven respectively.

Total outermost valence shell electron of the fluorine atom in CH3F = 7

Total outermost valence shell electron of carbon atom in CH3F= 4

Total outermost valence shell electron of hydrogen atom in CH3F= 1

The CH3F molecule has one central carbon atom, one fluorine, and three hydrogen atoms. Then the total outermost valence shell electrons can be calculated as follows

∴ Total outermost valence shell electrons available for CHF3 Lewis structure( dot structure) = 4 +3*1+ 7= 14 valence electrons  in CH3F    

calculation of total valence electron of CH3F molecule

Step-2: Locate the atom with the least electronegative charge and place it in the center of the CH3F molecular geometry. In this phase, we’ll select the least electronegative atom in the CH3F molecule to place in the CH3F Lewis structure diagram’s center. In the periodic table, the electronegativity value increases in order from left to right and decreases in order from top to bottom in periodic groups.

As a result, fluorine is the first atom in the halogen family group in the periodic table. carbon comes first in the carbon family group. A carbon atom has a lower electronegative value than a fluorine atom. Furthermore, because fluorine is the most electronegative element in the CH3F molecule, it can never be the central atom in a CH3F Lewis structure diagram. As a result of this, place carbon at the center of the CH3F Lewis structure, with fluorine at the top terminal and three hydrogens forced downward around the tetrahedral geometry.

Step-3: Use one single bond (C-F) to connect the outside and core atoms in the CH3F molecule. Connect all outside fluorine and three hydrogen atoms to the core central carbon atom of the CH3F molecule with four single bonds in this stage.

Count how many outermost valence shell electrons we’ve used so far in the CH3F structure. Because each carbon atom is connected to one fluorine and three hydrogen atoms by one single C-F and three C-H bonds, each connection contains two electrons. Those are called bond pairs.

So, from the total of 14 valence electrons available for the CH3F Lewis structure, we employed 8 electrons for one single (C-F) and three single (C-H) bonds in the CH3F molecule. There are still 6 valence electrons left in the CH3F molecule. Where do we need to place them in CH3F molecular geometry?

Step-4: Starting with the outer one fluorine and three hydrogen atoms in the CH3F molecule, place the remaining valence electrons. We always start inserting valence electrons from the exterior atom first in the CH3F Lewis structure diagram. As a result, first, wrap around the leftover valence electrons on the fluorine atom.

To complete its octet, fluorine requires 8 electrons in its outermost valence shell. With the help of a single bond, fluorine already shares two electrons. Put 6 electrons around the fluorine atom and you’re done with the fluorine in the CH3F molecule.

In the CH3F molecule structure above, we’ve put 6 electrons around the fluorine atom, represented by a dot. As the fluorine atom have 8 electrons in their outermost valence shell, the fluorine atom comfortably completes its octet stability in the CH3F molecule.

Using the CH3F Lewis structure, count how many outermost valence shell electrons have been consumed so far. In the CH3F molecular structure, 14 electrons are represented as dot structure, whereas two single bonds each contain 2 electrons. As an outcome of the calculation, the outermost valence shell electrons of the CH3F molecule are 6 + 8= 14.

So far, we’ve used 14 of the total 14 outermost valence shell electrons available for the CH3F Lewis structure.

Best Overview: Is CH3F Polar or Nonpolar

Step-5: Complete central carbon atom octet and use covalent bond if necessary. In the CH3F Lewis structure, carbon is the central atom and it is connected with one single bond (C-F) to the fluorine atom. It means it already sharing 8 electrons with the help of 4 single bonds. So, carbon is obeying the rule of the octet as 8 electrons around it.

What are CH3F electron and molecular geometry?

CH3F has a tetrahedral molecular geometry and CH3Cl like electron geometry, according to the VSEPR theory. Because the core central atom, carbon, has one C-F and three C-H bonds with the surrounding one fluorine and three hydrogen atoms. In the tetrahedral plane, the F-C-H bond forms a 109.5-degree angle. Because top fluorine and three hydrogen atoms are in the CH3F molecule, they form a tetrahedral shape.

Top of the tetrahedral geometry, there is one C-F bond. It maintains the tetrahedral-like form after connecting the three hydrogens downward in the tetrahedral form. The C-F bond is located just top of C-H bond pairs in the CH3F tetrahedral geometry.

Because of the no lone pairs of electrons in the central atom of CH3F, it gives tetrahedral electron geometry. But the CH3F molecular geometry is a tetrahedral form in nature. It is the asymmetrical geometry of the CH3F molecule. That makes, CH3F molecule is polar.

How to find CH3F molecular geometry

  1. Determine the number of lone pairs on the CH3F Lewis structure’s core carbon atom.
    We need to figure out how many lone pairs there are on the central carbon atom of the CH3F Lewis structure because the lone pairs on carbon are primarily responsible for the CH3F molecule geometry distortion.

Use the formula below to find the lone pair on the CH3F molecule’s central carbon atom.

L.P(C) = V.E(C) – N.A(C-F and C-H)/2


Lone pair on the central carbon atom = L.P(C)

The core central carbon atom’s valence electron = V.E(C)

Number of C-F and C-H bonds = N.A (C-F and C-H)

calculation for carbon atom lone pair in CH3F molecule

In the case of CH3F, the center atom, carbon, has four outermost valence shell electrons and four connections of C-H and C-F bond.

As a result of this, L.P(C) = (4 –4)/2=0

The lone pair on the central carbon atom of the CH3F electron geometry structure is equal to zero. It means, the central carbon atom contains zero lone pairs.

  1. Determine the number of CH3F molecular hybridizations.
    How to find the hybridization of the CH3F molecule?. Now we need to figure out what CH3F’s molecular hybridization number is.

The formula of CH3F molecular hybridization is as follows:

No. Hyb of CH3F = N.A(C-H and C-F bonds) + L.P(C)

No. Hy of CH3F= the number of hybridizations of CH3F

Number of C-F and C-H bonds = N.A (C-H and C-F bonds)

Lone pair on the central carbon atom = L.P(C)

Calculation for hybridization number for CH3F molecule

Carbon, then, is a central atom with one fluorine and three hydrogen atoms linked to it and no lone pairs in the CH3F molecule. Then the number of hybridization of CH3F(No. Hyb of CH3F) can be calculated as follows

No. Hyb of CH3F= 4+0 =4

The number of hybridization for CH3F molecule is four. one S orbital, and three p orbitals combine together to form the sp3 hybridization.

3. Use VSEPR theory to determine CH3F molecular geometry shape

When the VSEPR theory is utilized to calculate the shape of the CH3F molecule, the AXN approach is typically used.

The AXN notation is as follows:

The center carbon atom in the CH3F molecule is denoted by the letter A.

The bound pairs (C-H and C-F) of electrons to the core atom are represented by X.

The lone pairs of electrons on the center carbon atom are denoted by the letter N.

Notation for CH3F molecular geometry


We know carbon is the center atom with four bound (C-F and three C-H ) pairs of electrons and zero lone pairs. because of the CH3F Lewis structure. CH3F has the general molecular geometry formula AX4.

If the molecule has an AX4 generic formula, the molecular geometry will be tetrahedral and the electron geometry will be tetrahedral, according to the VSEPR theory.

Name of MoleculeFluoromethane
Chemical molecular formulaCH3F
Molecular geometry of CH3FTetrahedral
Electron geometry of CH3FTetrahedral
Hybridization of CH3FSp³
Bond angle (F-C-H)109.5º degree
Total Valence electron for CH3F14
The formal charge of CH3F on carbon0

How to calculate the formal charge in CH3F Lewis Structure?

The formal charge on the carbon central atom of the CH3F molecule often represents the actual charge on that carbon central atom. The formal charge will be found on the central carbon atom of the CH3F Lewis dot structure in the following calculation.

To calculate the formal charge on central carbon atom of CH3F molecule by using the following formula:

The formal charge on the carbon atom of CH3F molecule= (V. E(C)– L.E(C) – 1/2(B.E))

V.E (C) = Valence electron in carbon atom of CH3F molecule

L.E(C) = Lone pairs of an electron in carbon atom of CH3F molecule.

B.E = Bond pair electron in C atom of CH3F molecule

calculation of formal charge on carbon atom in CH3F molecule

We have 4 valence electrons, 0 lone pair electrons, and eight bonding electrons in the carbon central atom (four single bonds attached to fluorine and three hydrogens) of the CH3F molecule. Now put these value of the carbon atom in the above formula

Formal charge on carbon atom of CH3F molecule = (4- 0-(8/2)) =0

The formal charge on central carbon atom of CH3F Lewis structure is zero.

Lewis structure of some other related post in this blog. See more detail by clicking on it, H2OBeCl2SF4NH3XeF4, BF3BrF3BrF5SO3, SCl2, PCl3, H2S, NO2+, HBr, CS2, and CH2Cl2 molecules.

The dipole moment of CH3F

The dipole moment of the CH3F molecule can assist us in determining the polarity’s strength. The polarity of any molecule is proportional to its dipole moment. Because the form of CH3F is asymmetric. The dipole moment of CH3F does not cancel each other as a result of this.

Dipole moment of C-F bond of CH3F can be calculated as follows

D(C-F) = Q(C-F) * R(C-F)

D(C-F) = Dipole moment of C-F bond in CH3F molecule

Q(C-F) = Charge distribution in C and F atom of CH3F molecule

R(C-F)= Bond length of C-F bond in CH3F molecule

Dipole moment of C-F bond of CH3F molecule

The dipole moment of the C-H bond of CH3F can be calculated as follows

D(C-H) = Q(C-H) * R(C-H)

D(C-H) = Dipole moment of C-H bond in CH3F molecule

Q(C-H) = Charge distribution in C and H atom of CH3F molecule

R(C-H)= Bond length of C-H bond in CH3F molecule

Dipole moment of C-H bond of CH3F molecule

Net dipole moment of CH3F molecule is 1.61D.

Why is CH3F a polar molecule?

Due to the existence of no lone pairs on the central carbon atom, the fluoromethane (CH3F) molecule has a tetrahedral geometrical form. According to the VSEPR hypothesis, no lone pairs and bond pairs repel each other, causing the C-F bond to move to the top and three C-H bonds to move to the lower side of the tetrahedral molecular structure, resulting in a tetrahedral molecule.

The dipole moment of the C-F bond does not cancel out as it does in asymmetric CH3F molecules. CH3F has a dipole moment of 1.61D across the entire molecule. The formation of a polar molecule is caused by the geometrical structure and the difference in electronegativity value of atoms in the CH3F molecule.

Because of the asymmetric shape of the CH3F molecule, the charge is dispersed non-uniformly among the carbon, hydrogen, and fluorine atoms, resulting in the formation of positive and negative electron density clouds across the CH3F molecule.

Properties of CH3F molecule

The properties of CH3F are listed below

  • It’s a colorless gas with a lovely ether-like aroma.
  • It is naturally flammable.
  • It has a density of 1.4397 g/L 0.557 g/cm3 at a temperature of 25 °C and in the liquid condition.
  • This substance has a melting point of 137.8 °C (216.0 °F) and a boiling point of 78.4 °C (109.1 °F).
  • This gas has a vapour pressure of 3.3 MPa.
  • CH3F molecule has a tetrahedral form.

Uses of CH3F molecule

The uses of CH3F molecule are listed below

  • Fluoromotheane, also known as Halocarbon 41, is used in the production of semiconductors and electronic components.
  • It can also be employed as a selective inhibitor of CH4 oxidation by aerobic bacteria in biological investigations.
  • It’s the tiniest member of the CFC family, and it’s employed in the refrigeration system to keep food cool.

Conclusion

Fluoromethane (CH3F) is a gas made up of one carbon, three hydrogen atoms, and one fluorine atom in the tetrahedral molecular geometry. Because fluorine is more electronegative than carbon and hydrogen, it attracts electrons and gets a partial negative charge, whereas other elements obtain a partial positive charge in the electron density cloud of CH3F molecule.

The polarity of the CH3F molecule is due to the difference in electronegativity of the atoms.The electronegativity difference value of carbon and fluorine atom is higher than 0.5. That makes, CH3F molecule more polar in nature.

CH3F molecule is sp3 hybridized and tetrahedral structure. F-C-H bond angle of CH3F molecule is 109.5 degree. C-F bond length of CH3F molecule is 135 pm. C-H bond length of CH3F molecule is 107 pm. It is commonly used as coolant.

If you have any queries and doubts on CH3F polarity post, please leave the comment. we will get back to you as soon as possible.

FAQ on “Is CH3F polar or nonpolar?”

Is CHF3 a polar molecule?

Because it is asymmetric and has poles, CHF3 or Fluoroform is a polar molecule. The production of poles for this molecule is caused by the uneven distribution of charges in the molecule.

What kind of bond is CH3F?

CH3F is a polar molecule with a constant dipole moment. Because the F atom is connected to the core C atom, hydrogen bonding does not occur in this situation.

Is CH3F a hydrogen bond?

In the gaseous state, CH3F forms a hydrogen bond with H2O, but it does not dissolve in bulk water. This study looks at CH3F molecules that are surrounded by one to six water molecules. CH3F produced hydrogen bonds that were nearly as strong as water in systems with similar topologies.

Does CH3F have hydrogen bonding

Yes, fluorine atom has three pairs of lone pairs. It can form hydrogen bonding. But, CH3F is naturally available in gaseous form. In gaseous for, it is very difficult to form hydrogen bonding.

The polarity of the molecules

The polarity of the molecules are listed as follows

Lewis Structure and Molecular Geometry

Lewis structure and molecular geometry of molecules are listed below

External Reference : “Is CH3F Polar or Nonpolar “

Information about CH3F

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