How to draw KI Lewis Structure?

The potassium iodide chemical formula is KI. Drawing KI Lewis Structure is very easy to by using the following method. Here in this post, we described step by step method to construct KI Lewis Structure. The iodine and potassium elements come as members of the halogen and alkaline metal family groups from the periodic table respectively. The valence electrons in iodine and potassium are seven and one respectively. Potassium iodide is used to make chemical reagents for organic chemical reactions as a brominating agent in organic chemistry.

Key Points To Consider When Drawing The KI Electron Dot Structure

A three-step approach for drawing the KI Lewis structure can be used. The first step is to sketch the Lewis structure of the KI molecule, to add valence electrons around the iodine atom; the second step is to add valence electrons to the one potassium atom, and the final step is to combine the step1 and step2 to get the KI Lewis Structure.

The KI Lewis structure is a diagram that illustrates the number of valence electrons and bond electron pairs in the KI molecule. The geometry of the KI molecule can then be predicted using the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR Theory), which states that molecules will choose the KI geometrical shape in which the electrons have from one another.

Finally, you must add their bond polarities to compute the strength of the one K+—I- single bonds (dipole moment properties of the KI molecule). The potassium-iodine ionic bonds in potassium iodide(KI), for example, are polarised toward the more electronegative iodine in KI molecule, and because both bonds have the same size and are located around one potassium terminal of the linear structure with three lone pairs (in total eight electrons) on the iodine atom as iodide ion(I-), their sum of dipole moment is nonzero due to the KI molecule’s bond dipole moment and less electron polarity to the potassium atoms and become potassium ion. Because K+—-I- bonds polarity is not canceled in the KI molecule due to the presence of four lone pairs of electrons in the linear structure. The potassium iodide(KI) molecule is classified as a polar ionic molecular crystal.

How to draw KI Lewis Structure?

The molecule of potassium iodide(linear-shaped molecular geometry) is tilted, the bond angles between iodine (as iodide ion) and potassium (as potassium ion) are 180 degrees. It has a difference in electronegativity values between iodine and potassium atoms, with central iodine’s pull being higher than terminal potassium’s in the KI ionic molecule. But they do not cancel each other due to the linear structure with four lone pairs in the molecular geometry of the KI molecule.

As a result, it has the nonzero dipole moment. The KI molecule has a nonzero dipole moment due to an unequal charge distribution of negative and positive charges. But both iodine and potassium atoms fall on the halogen and alkaline metal family groups in the periodic table respectively. The iodine atom is a more electronegative value than potassium in the KI ionic molecule. The KI molecule has the net dipole moment of non-zero value in the ground state energy level.

KI molecule has one K+—–I- single bond. Its dipole moment in the ground state is totally different as compared with the excited state. If it absorbs light may be from visible or UV light. It undergoes pi to pi star and n to pi star transition from ground state energy level to excited state energy level. In the excited state energy level, the KI ionic molecule shows a definite dipole moment. But it is very dynamic in nature.

Molecules can be classified as polar or nonpolar. The molecule polar behaves in a different manner as compared to nonpolar.

Overview: KI Lewis Structure

The central atom is iodine, which is bordered on two terminals with potassium atoms(linear structural geometry), and four lone pairs on the central iodine atom in the linear molecular geometry. Iodine has seven outermost valence electrons, indicating that it possesses seven electrons in its outermost shell, whereas potassium also has one valence electron in its outermost shell. To complete the octet of the iodine atom requires one valence electron on each of their outermost shell.

One potassium atom establishes covalent connections with the central iodine atom as a result, leaving the iodine atom with three lone pairs. There are three lone pairs of electrons on the iodine central atom that resists the bond pairs of the K+—-I- bond. According to VSEPR theory, the K+—-I- ionic bond pairs polarity lead the KI molecule to take on the linear geometry structure.

The KI molecule’s one K+—-I- bonds are arranged in asymmetrical polarity order around the linear molecular geometry, giving rise to the KI molecular shape. The KI molecule has a linear molecular geometry because there is an electrical repulsion between the lone pairs of electrons in iodine and one single ionic bond pair(K-I) of the KI molecule.

Lewis structure of KI has dot electron representative structure. Valence electrons of atoms undergo orbitals mixing in the chemical reactions, giving new types of molecular species of KI. The molecule is nothing but a bundle of valence electrons from the atoms. But it is converted to ionic bond pairs and lone pairs in the molecular structure.

Electronegative value Difference Calculation of KI Molecule:

Iodine and potassium Electronegative difference in KI:

The iodine atom has an electronegativity of 2.66, while potassium has an electronegativity of 0.82 in the KI ionic molecule. The difference in electronegativity of iodine and potassium can be estimated using the method below.

The electronegative value difference between iodine and potassium in KI molecule

Electronegativity value of iodine= 2.66

Electronegativity value of potassium= 0.82

Difference of electronegativity value between iodine and potassium in KI molecule =2.66– 0.82 = 1.84. Electronegativity difference between K-I ionic bond calculation of KI molecule

The electronegative difference between iodine and potassium is greater than 0.5. This indicated the bond polarity moves near to polar nature. K-I ionic bond polarity in the KI molecule is polar.

Because of this difference in electronegativity of iodine and potassium atoms, the KI molecule’s K+—F- bond becomes nonpolar. The total net dipole moment of the KI molecule is nonzero due to the cancellation of the bond dipole moment in the linear geometry due to the presence of three lone pairs of electrons. The electronegativity of an atom is the strength with which it may attract bound electron pairs to its side.

As a result, the K-I bond’s dipole moment is higher due to the polarization of the bonds and four lone pairs of electrons on iodine, and all K-I bonds’ dipoles are arranged in the asymmetrical KI molecular geometry. The KI molecule has a nonzero net dipole moment.

The electron dot structure of the KI molecule is also known as the KI Lewis structure. It determines the number of outermost valence electrons as well as the electrons engaged in the KI ionic molecule’s bond formation. The outermost valence electrons of the KI molecule must be understood while constructing the Lewis structure of the molecule.

The iodine atom is the middle element in KI molecular geometry, with seven electrons in its outermost valence electron shell, whereas the potassium atom has one electron in its outermost valence electron shell. The potassium atom has one valence electron.

The KI has a total of 8 valence electrons as a result of the foregoing above-said reasoning. With the core central iodine atom, the one terminals with one potassium atom form ionic bonds, leaving the iodine atom with four lone pairs in the middle of linear geometry.

Because three lone pairs on the terminal iodine atoms create interaction with K-I bond pairs(but it is negligible in the ground state of the KI molecule). The bond angle of the K-I bond in the linear molecular geometry is approximately 180 degrees. This angle is greater than the CH4 molecule bond angle. The K-I bond length is 250 pm(picometer).

To sketch the KI Lewis structure by following these instructions:

Step-1: KI Lewis dot Structure by counting valence electrons on the iodine atom

To calculate the valence electron of each atom in KI, look for its periodic group from the periodic table. The halogen and alkaline metal group families, which are the 17th and 1st groups in the periodic table, are both made up of iodine and potassium atoms respectively. In their outermost shells, potassium and iodine have one and seven valence electrons respectively.

Calculate the total number of valence electrons in the KI molecule’s outermost valence shell. The first step is to determine how many electrons are in the KI Lewis structure’s outermost valence shell. An electron in an atom’s outermost shell is known as a valence electron. It is represented by dots in the KI Lewis diagram. The KI molecule’s core iodine atom can be represented as follows:

Total outermost valence shell electron of iodine atom in KI= 7

Total outermost valence shell electron of potassium atom in KI= 1

The KI molecule has one central iodine and one potassium atom. Then the total outermost valence shell electrons can be calculated as follows

∴ Total outermost valence shell electrons available for KI Lewis structure( dot structure) = 7+1*1= 8 valence electrons  in KI.  calculation of total valence electron of KI molecule

Choose the atom with the least electronegative value atom and insert it in the center of the molecular geometry of KI. We’ll choose the least electronegative value atom in the KI molecule to place in the center of the KI Lewis structure diagram in this phase.

But in this case, potassium is the least electronegative than iodine. Potassium loses one electron and forms potassium positive ions(K+). So that iodine stays in the central molecular structure. The electronegativity value in periodic groups grows from left to right in the periodic table and drops from top to bottom.

How to draw KI Lewis Structure?

The first step is to put seven valence electrons around the potassium atom as given in the figure.

Step-2: Lewis Structure of KI for counting valence electrons around the terminal potassium atoms

As a result, iodine is the fourth atom in the periodic table’s halogen family group. Potassium is the fourth member of the alkaline metal family. It is the first element in the periodic table. The electronegative value of the iodine atom is higher than that of the potassium atom in the KI molecule. Furthermore, potassium has a one-electron limit since it is the less electronegative element in the KI molecule.

In the KI Lewis structure diagram, the iodine atom can be the center atom of the molecule. As a result, central iodine in the KI Lewis structure, with one potassium atom arranged in a linear geometry.

Iodine accepts one electron and forms an iodide ion(F-). The total lone pair of electrons in the iodide ion is eight. They are negatively charged.

How to draw KI Lewis Structure?

Add valence electron around the iodine atom, as given in the figure.

Step-3: Lewis dot Structure for KI generated from step-1 and step-2

Connect the exterior and core central atom of the KI molecule with one single K-I bond. In this stage, use one potassium atom on the outside of the KI molecule to the central iodine atom in the middle.

Count how many electrons from the outermost valence shell have been used in the KI structure so far. K-I single bond carries two electrons because the iodine atom is connected to one potassium atom by K-I single bonds. Bond pairings of K-I are what they’re called.

So, out of the total of 8 valence electrons available for the KI Lewis structure, we used four electrons for the KI molecule’s one K-I single bond. The KI molecule has three lone pairs of electrons in the central iodine atom.

Place the valence electrons in the K-I bond pair starting with the core iodine, one potassium atom in the KI molecule. In the KI Lewis structure diagram, we always begin by introducing valence electrons from the central iodine atom(in step 2). As a result, wrap around the central iodine atom’s bond pair valence electrons first (see figure for step2).

The iodine atom in the molecule gets only 8 electrons around its molecular structure. This central iodine atom is octet stable. But it has three lone pairs. Iodine gas(F2) is a colorless gas. Iodine is very corrosive in nature. It is one of the very reactive chemical reagents.

Potassium metal is in a soft solid state at normal temperature and pressure. It is used as a reducing agent in the field of organic chemistry. It is highly flammable in nature. It is very reactive in water and alcohol. Water reacts with potassium metal and forms potassium hydroxide. Similarly, alcohol(such as methanol) reacted with potassium and forms potassium methoxide.

Iodine requires 8 electrons in its outermost valence shell to complete the molecular octet stability, two electrons bond pairs in one K-I single bond, and three lone pairs in the central iodine atom. No lone pairs of electrons on the potassium atoms of the KI molecule are placed in a linear geometry. Iodine already shares 8 electrons to the one K-I single bonds. Then place the valence electron in the potassium atoms, it placed around one electron on each atom(step-1). There are no valence electrons placed around one potassium atom as lone pair of electrons.

We’ve positioned 8 electrons around the one-terminal potassium atoms(step-3), which is represented by a dot, in the KI molecular structure above. The iodine atom completes its molecular octet stability in the KI molecule because it possesses 2 electrons in its (one K-I single ionic bond pairs) bond pairs with one potassium in the outermost valence shell.

How to draw KI Lewis Structure?

Count how many outermost valence shell electrons have been used so far using the KI Lewis structure. One electron bond pairs are shown as dots in the KI chemical structure, whereas one single bond contains two electrons. The outermost valence shell electrons of the KI molecule(bond pairs) are 2 as a result of the calculation. The total valence electron in a iodine atom is 8.

So far, we’ve used 8 of the KI Lewis structure’s total 8 outermost valence shell electrons. Three lone pairs of electrons on the iodine atom in the linear or tetrahedral geometry of the KI molecule.

Complete the middle KI atom stability and, if necessary, apply a covalent bond. The central iodine atom undergoes octet stability(due to one single bond pair of electrons).

The core atom in the KI Lewis structure is iodine, which is bonded to the one potassium atom by single bonds (one K-I). With the help of one single bond, it already shares 8 electrons. As a result, the iodine follows the octet rule and has 8 electrons surrounding it on the one terminal of the KI molecule’s linear or tetrahedral geometry.

How to calculate the formal charge on iodine and potassium atoms in KI Lewis Structure?

Calculating formal charge on the iodine of KI molecule:

The formal charge on the KI molecule’s iodine central atom often corresponds to the actual charge on that iodine central atom. In the following computation, the formal charge will be calculated on the central iodine atom of the KI Lewis dot structure.

To calculate the formal charge on the central iodine atom of the KI molecule by using the following formula:

The formal charge on the iodine atom of KI molecule= (V. E(I)– L.E(I) – 1/2(B.E))

V.E (I) = Valence electron in a iodine atom of KI molecule

L.E(I) = Lone pairs of an electron in the iodine atom of the KI molecule.

B.E = Bond pair electron in Br atom of KI molecule calculation of formal charge on iodine atom in KI molecule

The iodine core atom (one single bond connected to one potassium atom) of the KI molecule has seven valence electrons, three lone pairs of electrons(six electrons), and 2 bonding pairing valence electrons. Put these values for the iodine atom in the formula above.

Formal charge on iodine atom of KI molecule = (7- 8-(0/2)) = -1

In the Lewis structure of KI, the formal charge on the central iodine atom is -1 (negative charge).

Calculating formal charge on the potassium atom of KI molecule:

The formal charge on the KI molecule’s potassium terminal atoms often corresponds to the actual charge on that potassium terminal atoms. In the following computation, the formal charge will be calculated on the terminal potassium atom of the KI Lewis dot structure.

To calculate the formal charge on the terminal potassium atom of the KI molecule by using the following formula:

The formal charge on the potassium atom of KI molecule= (V. E(K)– L.E(K) – 1/2(B.E))

V.E (K) = Valence electron in a potassium atom of KI molecule

L.E(K) = Lone pairs of an electron in the potassium atom of the KI molecule.

B.E = Bond pair electron in H atom of KI molecule calculation of formal charge on potassium atom in KI molecule

The potassium terminal atoms of the KI molecule have one valence electron, no lone pairs of electrons(zero electrons), and two bonding pairing valence electrons(single bond). Put these values for the potassium atom in the formula above.

Formal charge on potassium atom of KI molecule = (1- 0-(0/2)) =+1

In the Lewis structure of KI, the formal charge on the terminal potassium atom is +1 (positive charge).

Summary:

In this post, we discussed the method to construct the KI Lewis structure. First, the valence electrons are placed around the potassium atom and lose one electron. Then it becomes potassium positive ions. Second, place the valence electron on the iodine atoms and the iodine atom accepts one electron in its valence shell. Finally, when we combined the first and second steps. It gives KI Lewis structure. Need to remember that, if you follow the above-said method, you can construct molecular dot structure very easily.

What is the KI Lewis structure?

KI Lewis structure is dot representation

What is the formal charge on the KI Lewis structure?

Zero charges on the KI molecular structure

The polarity of the molecules

The polarity of the molecules are listed as follows

Lewis Structure and Molecular Geometry

Lewis structure and molecular geometry of molecules are listed below

External Reference:

Information on potassium iodide(KI)

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