MgCl2 Molecular Geometry

Drawing and predicting the MgCl2 molecular geometry is very easy. Here in this post, we described step by step method to construct MgCl2 molecular geometry.

Key Points To Consider When drawing The MgCl2 Molecular Geometry

A three-step approach for drawing the MgCl2 molecular can be used. The first step is to sketch the molecular geometry of the MgCl2 molecule, to calculate the lone pairs of the electron in the central magnesium atom; the second step is to calculate the MgCl2 hybridization, and the third step is to give perfect notation for the MgCl2 molecular geometry.

The MgCl2 molecular geometry is a diagram that illustrates the number of valence electrons and bond electron pairs in the MgCl2 molecule in a specific geometric manner. The geometry of the MgCl2 molecule can then be predicted using the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR Theory) and molecular hybridization theory, which states that molecules will choose an MgCl2 geometrical shape in which the electrons have from one another in the specific molecular structure.

Finally, you must add their bond polarities characteristics to compute the strength of the Mg-Cl bond (dipole moment properties of the MgCl2 molecular geometry). The magnesium-chlorine bonds in the magnesium chloride molecule(MgCl2), for example, are polarised toward the more electronegative value chlorine atom, and because both bonds have the same size and polarity, their sum is zero due to the MgCl2 molecule’s bond dipole moment, and the MgCl2 molecule is classified as a nonpolar molecule.

The molecule of magnesium chloride (with linear MgCl2 molecular geometry) is tilted at 180 degrees and has a difference in electronegativity values between chlorine and magnesium atoms, with chlorine’s pull being greater than magnesium’s. As a result, it has no dipole moment in its molecular structure. The MgCl2 molecule has no dipole moment due to an equal charge distribution of negative and positive charges.

MgCl2 Molecular Geometry

MgCl2 electron and molecular geometry

According to the VSEPR theory, MgCl2 possesses a linear molecular geometry and an MgCl2-like electron geometry. Because the center atom, magnesium, has two Mg-Cl bonds with the two chlorine atoms surrounding it. The Cl-Mg-Cl bond generates a 180-degree angle in the linear geometry. The MgCl2 molecule has a linear shape because it contains two chlorine atoms.

There are two Mg-Cl bonds at the linear MgCl2 molecular geometry. After linking the two chlorines in the linear form, it maintains the linear-like structure. In the MgCl2 linear molecular geometry, the Mg-Cl bonds have stayed in the two terminals of the molecule.

The center magnesium atom of MgCl2 has no lone pairs of electrons, resulting in linear electron geometry. However, the molecular geometry of MgCl2 is linear in nature. It’s the MgCl2 molecule’s symmetrical geometry. As a result, the MgCl2 molecule is nonpolar.

How to find MgCl2 molecular geometry

Calculating lone pairs of electron in MgCl2 molecular geometry:

  1. Determine the number of lone pairs on the core be an atom of the MgCl2 Lewis structure.
    Because the lone pairs on magnesium are mostly responsible for the MgCl2 molecule geometry distortion, we need to calculate out how many there are on the central atom of the Lewis structure.

Use the formula below to find the lone pair on the MgCl2 molecule’s central magnesium atom.

L.P(Mg) = V.E(Mg) – N.A(Mg-Cl)/2

Lone pair on the central magnesium atom = L.P(Mg)

The core central magnesium atom’s valence electron = V.E(Mg)

Number of Mg-Cl bonds = N.A (Mg-Cl)

calculation for magnesium atom lone pair in MgCl2 molecule

In the instance of MgCl2, the central atom, magnesium, has two electrons in its outermost valence shell and two Mg-Cl bond connections.

As a result of this, L.P(Mg) = (2 –2)/2=0

In the MgCl2 electron geometry structure, the lone pair on the central magnesium atom is zero. It means there are no lone pairs in the core magnesium atom.

Calculate the number of molecular hybridizations of MgCl2 Molecular Geometry

How do you find the MgCl2 molecule’s hybridization? We must now determine the molecular hybridization number of MgCl2.

The formula of MgCl2 molecular hybridization is as follows:

No. Hyb of MgCl2 = N.A(Mg-Cl bonds) + L.P(Mg)

No. Hy of MgCl2= the number of hybridizations of MgCl2

Number of Mg-Cl bonds = N.A (Mg-Cl bonds)

Lone pair on the central magnesium atom = L.P(Mg)

Calculation for hybridization number for MgCl2 molecule

In the MgCl2 molecule, magnesium is a core atom with two chlorine atoms connected to it and no lone pairs. The number of MgCl2 hybridizations (No. Hyb of MgCl2) can then be estimated using the formula below.

No. Hyb of MgCl2= 2+0 =2

The MgCl2 molecule hybridization is two. The sp hybridization is formed when one S orbital and one p orbital join together to form a molecular orbital.

Notation of MgCl2 Molecular Geometry:

Determine the form of MgCl2 molecular geometry using VSEPR theory. The AXN technique is commonly used when the VSEPR theory is used to calculate the shape of the MgCl2 molecule.

The AXN notation of MgCl2 is as follows:

The center carbon atom in the MgCl2 molecule is denoted by the letter A.

The bound pairs (Mg-Cl) of electrons to the core atom are represented by X.

The lone pairs of electrons on the center magnesium atom are denoted by the letter N.

Notation for MgCl2 molecular geometry

We know that magnesium is the core atom, with two electron pairs bound (two Mg-Cl) and zero lone pairs. The general molecular geometry formula for MgCl2 is AX2.

According to the VSEPR theory, if the MgCl2 molecule has an AX2 generic formula, the molecular geometry and electron geometry will both be linear geometrical forms.

Name of MoleculeMagnesium chloride
Chemical molecular formulaMgCl2
Molecular geometry of MgCl2Linear form
Electron geometry of MgCl2Linear form
Hybridization of MgCl2SP
Bond angle (Cl-Mg-Cl)180º degree
Total Valence electron for MgCl216
The formal charge of MgCl2 on magnesium0


In this post, we discussed the method to construct MgCl2 molecular geometry, the method to find the lone pairs of electrons in the central magnesium atom, MgCl2 hybridization, and MgCl2 molecular notation. Need to remember that, if you follow the above-said method, you can construct MgCl2 molecular structure very easily.

What is MgCl2 Molecular geometry?

MgCl2 Molecular geometry is an electronic structural representation of molecules.

What is the molecular notation for MgCl2 molecule?

MgCl2 molecular notation is AX2

The polarity of the molecules

Polarity of the molecules are listed as follows

Lewis Structure and Molecular Geometry

Lewis structure and molecular geometry of molecules are listed below

External Reference:

Information on MgCl2 molecule

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