How to draw MgF2 Lewis Structure?

Drawing MgF2 Lewis Structure is very easy. Here in this post, we described step by step method to construct MgF2 Lewis Structure.

Key Points To Consider When Drawing The MgF2 Lewis Structure

A three-step approach for drawing the MgF2 Lewis structure can be used. The first step is to sketch the Lewis structure of the MgF2 molecule, to add valence electron around the magnesium atom; the second step is to valence electron to the two fluorine atoms, and the final step is to combine the step1 and step2 to get the MgF2 Lewis Structure.

The MgF2 Lewis structure is a diagram that illustrates the number of valence electrons and bond electron pairs in the MgF2 molecule. The geometry of the MgF2 molecule can then be predicted using the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR Theory), which states that molecules will choose an MgF2 geometrical shape in which the electrons have from one another.

Finally, you must add their bond polarities to compute the strength of the Mg-F bond (dipole moment properties of the MgF2 molecule). The magnesium-fluorine bonds in magnesium fluoride(MgF2), for example, are polarised toward the more electronegative fluorine, and because both bonds have the same size and opposite to each other, their sum is zero due to the MgF2 molecule’s bond dipole moment, and the MgF2 molecule is classified as a nonpolar molecule.

The molecule of magnesium fluoride (with linear geometry) is tilted at 180 degrees and has a difference in electronegativity values between fluorine and magnesium atoms, with magnesium’s pull being less than fluorine’s terminal in the MgF2 molecule. As a result, it has no dipole moment. The MgF2 molecule has no dipole moment due to an equal charge distribution of negative and positive charges.

How to draw MgF2 Lewis Structure?

MgF2 Lewis Structure:

The central atom is magnesium, which is bordered on two terminals with fluorine atoms. Magnesium has two outermost valence electrons, indicating that it possesses two electrons in its outermost shell, whereas fluorine only has seven valence electrons in its outermost shell. To complete the octet of the fluorine atom, a fluorine terminal atom requires one electron. If you’re interested in learning more about the fluorine octet rule, please see in our previous post.

Two fluorine atoms establish covalent connections with the magnesium atom as a result, leaving the magnesium atom without any lone pairs. There are no lone pairs on the magnesium central atom that resist the bond pairs of the two Mg-F. According to VSEPR theory, no electronic repulsion leads the MgF2 molecule to take on a linear molecular shape like NO2+ and CS2.

The MgF2 molecule’s Mg-F bonds are arranged in a symmetrical order around the linear geometry, giving rise to the linear MgF2 shape. The MgF2 molecule has a linear molecular geometry because there is no electrical repulsion between them.

Electronegative Difference Calculation MgF2 Molecule:

Magnesium has an electronegativity of 1.00, while fluorine has an electronegativity of 3.98 in the MgF2 molecule. The difference in electronegativity can be estimated using the method below.

The electronegative value difference between magnesium and fluorine

Electronegativity value of magnesium = 1.00

Electronegativity value of fluorine= 3.98

Difference of electronegativity value between magnesium and fluorine= 3.98 – 1.00 =2.98

Electronegativity difference between Mg-F bond calculation of MgF2 molecule

Due to the difference in electronegativity value of greater than 0.5, the Mg-F bond of the MgF2 molecule becomes polar. Because of this difference in electronegativity, the MgF2 molecule’s Mg-F bond becomes polar. The electronegativity of an atom is the strength with which it may attract bound electron pairs to its side. The polarity of MgF2 is discussed in our previous post.

As a result, the Mg-F bond’s dipole moment is high due to the polarization of the bonds, and all Mg-F bonds’ dipoles are faced opposite to each other in the linear geometry. The MgF2 molecule’s total dipole moment is predicted to be 0 D. It has a partial negative charge for fluorine atoms and a partial positive charge for the central magnesium atom.

The electron dot structure of the MgF2 molecule is also known as the MgF2 Lewis structure. It determines the number of outermost valence electrons as well as the electrons engaged in the MgF2 molecule’s bond formation. The outermost valence electrons of the MgF2 molecule must be understood while considering the Lewis structure of the molecule.

The magnesium atom is the middle element in MgF2 molecular geometry, with two electrons in its outermost valence electron shell, whereas the fluorine atom has seven electrons in its outermost valence electron shell.

The MgF2 molecule has a total of 16 valence electrons as a result of the foregoing reasoning. With the core central magnesium atom, the two-terminal fluorine atoms form covalent bonds, leaving the magnesium atom with no lone pairs on it.

The linear geometry and structure of the MgF2 molecules are similar to that of the carbon disulfide (CS2) molecule because no lone pairs of central magnesium atoms create interaction with Mg-F bond pairs. The bond angle of the F-Mg-F bond is approximately 180 degrees. The Mg-F bond length is 181 pm(picometer).

To sketch the MgF2 Lewis structure by following these instructions:

Step-1: MgF2 Lewis Structure

To calculate the valence electron of each atom in MgF2, look for its periodic group from the periodic table. The alkaline earth metal and halogen families, which are the second and 17th groups in the periodic table, are both made up of magnesium and fluorine atoms. In their outermost shells, magnesium and fluorine have two and seven valence electrons, respectively.

Because magnesium and fluorine are members of the periodic table’s alkaline earth metals and halogen family groups, their valence electrons are two and seven, respectively.

Calculate the total number of electrons in the MgF2 molecule’s outermost valence shell. The first step is to determine how many electrons are in the MgF2 Lewis structure’s outermost valence shell. An electron in an atom’s outermost shell is known as a valence electron. It is represented by dots in the MgF2 Lewis diagram. The MgF2 molecule’s core carbon atom can be represented as follows:

Total outermost valence shell electron of magnesium atom in MgF2= 2

Total outermost valence shell electron of fluorine atom in MgF2= 7

The MgF2 molecule has one central magnesium atom and two fluorine atoms. Then the total outermost valence shell electrons can be calculated as follows

∴ Total outermost valence shell electrons available for MgF2 Lewis structure( dot structure) = 2 +2*7= 16 valence electrons  in MgF2    

calculation of total valence electron of MgF2 molecule

Choose the atom with the least electronegative value atom and insert it in the center of the molecular geometry of MgF2. We’ll choose the least electronegative value atom in the MgF2 molecule to place in the center of the MgF2 Lewis structure diagram in this phase. The electronegativity value in periodic groups grows from left to right in the periodic table and drops from top to bottom.

How to draw MgF2 Lewis Structure?

Step-2: MgF2 Lewis Structure

As a result, magnesium is the second atom in the periodic table’s alkaline earth metal family group. fluorine is the first member of the halogen family. The electronegative value of a magnesium atom is lower than that of a fluorine atom. Furthermore, magnesium has a two electrons limit since fluorine is the most electronegative element in the MgF2 molecule.

In an MgF2 Lewis structure diagram, the magnesium atom can be the center atom. As a result, central magnesium in the MgF2 Lewis structure, with all two fluorines arranged in the two-terminal of linear geometry.

How to draw MgF2 Lewis Structure?

Step-3: MgF2 Lewis Structure

Connect the exterior and core central atom of the MgF2 molecule with two single bonds (Mg-F). In this stage, use two single bonds to connect all two fluorine atoms on the outside of the MgF2 molecule to the central magnesium atom in the middle.

Count how many electrons from the outermost valence shell have been used in the MgF2 structure so far. Each Mg-F bond carries two electrons because each magnesium atom is connected to two fluorine atoms by two Mg-F bonds. Bond pairings are what they’re called.

So, out of the total of 16 valence electrons available for the MgF2 Lewis structure, we used 4 for the MgF2 molecule’s two single (Mg-F) bonds. The MgF2 molecule has no lone pair electrons in the center magnesium. We don’t need to put the extra electron in the molecular geometry of MgF2.

Place the valence electrons in the Mg-F bond pairs starting with the core magnesium and two fluorine atoms in the MgF2 molecule. In the MgF2 Lewis structure diagram, we always begin by introducing valence electrons from the central magnesium atom. As a result, wrap around the central magnesium atom’s bond pair valence electrons first.

Magnesium requires 4 electrons in its outermost valence shell to complete the molecular stability. Magnesium already shares 4 electrons thanks to the two single bonds. Then place the valence electron in the fluorine atom, it placed around seven electrons. Totally, 12 valence electrons were placed on the two fluorine atoms of the MgF2 molecule.

We’ve positioned four electrons around the central magnesium atom, which is represented by a dot, in the MgF2 molecular structure above. The magnesium atom completes its molecular stability in the MgF2 molecule because it possesses 4 electrons in its outermost valence shell.

Count how many outermost valence shell electrons have been used so far using the MgF2 Lewis structure. Four electrons are shown as dots in the MgF2 chemical structure, whereas two single bonds each contain two electrons. The outermost valence shell electrons of the MgF2 molecule are 4 + 12= 16 as a result of the calculation.

How to draw MgF2 Lewis Structure?

So far, we’ve used 16 of the MgF2 Lewis structure’s total eight outermost valence shell electrons.

Complete the middle magnesium atom stability and, if necessary, apply a covalent bond. The core atom in the MgF2 Lewis structure is magnesium, which is bonded to the fluorine atoms by two single bonds (Mg-F). With the help of two single bonds, it already shares four electrons. As a result, fluorine follows the octet rule and has eight electrons surrounding it on the two terminals of MgF2.

How to calculate the formal charge in MgF2 Lewis Structure?

The formal charge on the MgF2 molecule’s magnesium central atom often corresponds to the actual charge on that magnesium central atom. In the following computation, the formal charge will be calculated on the central magnesium atom of the MgF2 Lewis dot structure.

To calculate the formal charge on the central magnesium atom of the MgF2 molecule by using the following formula:

The formal charge on the magnesium atom of MgF2 molecule= (V. E(Mg)– L.E(Mg – 1/2(B.E))

V.E (Mg) = Valence electron in magnesium atom of MgF2 molecule

L.E(Mg) = Lone pairs of an electron in the magnesium atom of the MgF2 molecule.

B.E = Bond pair electron in Be atom of MgF2 molecule

calculation of formal charge on magnesium atom in MgF2 molecule

The magnesium core atom (two single bonds connected to fluorines) of the MgF2 molecule has two valence electrons, zero lone pair electrons, and four bonding electrons. Put these values for the magnesium atom in the formula above.

Formal charge on magnesium atom of MgF2 molecule = (2- 0-(4/2)) =0

In the Lewis structure of MgF2, the formal charge on the central magnesium atom is zero.


In this post, we discussed the method to construct the MgF2 Lewis structure. Need to remember that, if you follow the above-said method, you can construct molecular dot structure very easily.

What is the MgF2 Lewis structure?

MgF2 Lewis structure is dot representation

What is the formal charge on the MgF2 Lewis structure?

Zero charge on the MgF2 molecular structure

The polarity of the molecules

Polarity of the molecules are listed as follows

Lewis Structure and Molecular Geometry

Lewis structure and molecular geometry of molecules are listed below

External Reference:

Information on MgF2

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