How to draw N2 Lewis Structure

The nitrogen gas chemical formula is N2. Drawing N2 Lewis Structure is very easy by using the following method. Here in this post, we described a step by step method to construct the N2 Lewis Structure. The diatomic nitrogen molecule elements come as members of the nitrogen family group from the periodic table. The valence electrons in the nitrogen atom are five. Nitrogen gas is used as inert gas for organic chemical reactions in organic chemistry. It is a very essential biological activity of plants. It is the most abundant gas in the earth’s atmosphere.

Key Points To Consider When Drawing The N2 Electron Dot Structure

A three-step approach for drawing the N2 Lewis structure can be used. The first step is to sketch the Lewis structure of the N2 molecule, to add valence electrons around the two nitrogen atoms, and the final step is to combine the two nitrogen diatomic atoms to get the N2 Lewis Structure.

The N2 Lewis structure is a diagram that illustrates the number of valence electrons and bond electron pairs in the N2 molecule. The geometry of the N2 molecule can then be predicted using the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR Theory), which states that molecules will choose the N2 geometrical shape in which the electrons have from one another.

How to draw N2 Lewis Structure

Finally, you must add their bond polarities to compute the strength of the one N≡N triple bonds (dipole moment properties of the N2 molecule). The nitrogen-nitrogen bonds in nitrogen molecule(N2), for example, are polarised equally the more electronegative nitrogen in N2 molecule, and because both bonds have the same size and are located around one nitrogen terminal of the two tetrahedral or linear structure with three lone pairs (in total five electrons) on the nitrogen atoms, their sum of dipole moment is zero due to the N2 molecule’s bond dipole moment and two nitrogen atoms canceled the polarity. Because N≡N bonds polarity is canceled in the N2 molecule due to the presence of two equal sharing in the linear geometry. The nitrogen(N2) molecule is classified as a nonpolar molecule.

The molecule of diatomic nitrogen(with tetrahedral or linear-shaped molecular geometry) is tilted, the bond angles between nitrogen and nitrogen are 180 degrees. It has no difference in electronegativity values between nitrogen and other nitrogen atoms, with both nitrogen’s pull being equal in the N2 molecule. But they canceled each other due to the symmetrical linear structure with three lone pairs in the molecular geometry of the N2 molecule.

As a result, it has the zero dipole moment. The N2 molecule has a zero dipole moment due to an equal charge distribution of negative charges on both nitrogen terminals. But both nitrogen atoms fall on the nitrogen family groups in the periodic table. The nitrogen atom is a more electronegative value than iodine atom in the nitrogen family group. The N2 molecule has the net dipole moment of 0D value in the ground state energy level.

N2 molecule has one N≡N triple bond. Its dipole moment in the ground state is totally different as compared with the excited state. If it absorbs light may be from visible or UV light. It undergoes pi to pi star and n to pi star transition from ground state energy level to excited state energy level. In the excited state energy level, the N2 molecule shows a definite dipole moment. But it is very dynamic in nature.

Molecules can be classified as polar or nonpolar. The molecule polar behaves in a different manner as compared to nonpolar.

Overview: N2 Lewis Structure

The terminal atom is nitrogen, which is bordered on two terminals with nitrogen atoms( in tetrahedral or linear geometry), and three lone pairs on the two nitrogen atoms in the tetrahedral or linear molecular geometry. Nitrogen has five outermost valence electrons, indicating that it possesses five electrons in its outermost shell. To complete the octet of the two nitrogen atoms requires one valence electron on each of their outermost shell.

One nitrogen atom establishes covalent connections with the other terminal nitrogen atom as a result, leaving each nitrogen atom with three lone pairs. There are three lone pairs of electrons on the nitrogen terminal atom that resists the bond pairs of the N≡N bond. According to VSEPR theory, the N≡N bond pairs polarity lead the N2 molecule to take on the linear or tetrahedral geometry structure.

The N2 molecule’s one N≡N bond is arranged in symmetrical polarity order around the linear or tetrahedral molecular geometry, giving rise to the N2 molecular shape. The bond order of the N2 molecule is one. The N2 molecule has a tetrahedral or linear molecular geometry because there is an electrical repulsion between the lone pairs of electrons in nitrogen and one triple bond pair(N≡N) of the N2 molecule.

Lewis structure of N2 has dot electron representative structure. Valence electrons of atoms undergo orbitals mixing in the chemical reactions, giving new types of molecular species of N2. The molecule is nothing but a bundle of valence electrons from the atoms. But it is converted to bond pairs and lone pairs in the molecular structure.

Electronegative value Difference Calculation of N2 Molecule:

Nitrogen and nitrogen Electronegative difference in N2 molecule:

The nitrogen atom has an electronegativity of 3.04 in the N2 molecule. The difference in electronegativity of nitrogen and nitrogen can be estimated using the method below.

The electronegative value difference between nitrogen and nitrogen in N2 molecule

Electronegativity value of nitrogen= 3.04

Electronegativity value of nitrogen= 3.04

Difference of electronegativity value between nitrogen and nitrogen in N2 molecule = 3.04 – 3.04 = 0.00

Electronegativity difference between N≡N bond calculation of N2 molecule

The electronegative difference between nitrogen and nitrogen is less than 0.5. This indicated the bond polarity moves near to nonpolar nature. N≡N bond polarity in the N2 molecule is nonpolar.

Because of this difference in electronegativity of nitrogen and nitrogen atoms, the N2 molecule’s N≡N bond becomes nonpolar. The total net dipole moment of the N2 molecule is zero due to the cancellation of the bond dipole moment in the linear or tetrahedral geometry due to the presence of three lone pairs of electrons. The electronegativity of an atom is the strength with which it may attract bound electron pairs to its side. The polarity and Lewis structure of HF are discussed in our previous post.

As a result, the N≡N bond’s dipole moment is higher due to the polarization of the bonds and three lone pairs of electrons on nitrogen, and all N≡N bonds’ dipoles are arranged in the symmetrical N2 molecular geometry. The N2 molecule has a zero net dipole moment.

The electron dot structure of the N2 molecule is also known as the N2 Lewis structure. It determines the number of outermost valence electrons as well as the electrons engaged in the N2 molecule’s bond formation. The outermost valence electrons of the N2 molecule must be understood while constructing the Lewis structure of the molecule.

The nitrogen atom is the terminal element in N2 molecular geometry, with five electrons in its outermost valence electron shell.

The N2 has a total of 10 valence electrons as a result of the foregoing above-said reasoning. With the terminal nitrogen atom, the other terminal with one nitrogen atom forms covalent bond, leaving the nitrogen atom with three lone pairs(8 electron total) in the middle of linear or tetrahedral geometry.

Because three lone pairs on the terminal nitrogen atoms create interaction with N≡N bond pairs(but it is negligible in the ground state of the N2 molecule). The bond angle of the N≡N bond in the linear or tetrahedral molecular geometry is approximately 180 degrees. This angle is greater than the CH4 molecule bond angle. The N≡N bond length is shorter than the Cl-Cl bond length.

To sketch the N2 Lewis structure by following these instructions:

Step-1: N2 Lewis dot Structure by counting valence electrons on the nitrogen atom

To calculate the valence electron of each atom in N2, look for its periodic group from the periodic table. The nitrogen group families, which is the 15th in the periodic table, are made up of two nitrogen atoms. In their outermost shells, nitrogen and nitrogen have five and five valence electrons respectively.

Calculate the total number of valence electrons in the N2 molecule’s outermost valence shell. The first step is to determine how many electrons are in the N2 Lewis structure’s outermost valence shell. An electron in an atom’s outermost shell is known as a valence electron. It is represented by dots in the N2 Lewis diagram. The N2 molecule’s core nitrogen atom can be represented as follows:

Total outermost valence shell electron of nitrogen atom in N2= 5

Total outermost valence shell electron of nitrogen atom in N2= 5

The N2 molecule has one terminal nitrogen and other terminal nitrogen atoms. Then the total outermost valence shell electrons can be calculated as follows

∴ Total outermost valence shell electrons available for N2 Lewis structure( dot structure) = 5+5= 10 valence electrons  in N2.  

calculation of total valence electron of N2 molecule

Choose the atom with the least electronegative value atom and insert it in both terminals of the molecular geometry of N2. We’ll choose the least electronegative value atom in the N2 molecule to place in the terminal of the N2 Lewis structure diagram in this phase.

How to draw N2 Lewis Structure

The first step is to put five valence electrons around the nitrogen atom as given in the figure.

Step-2: Lewis dot Structure for N2 generated from step-1

Connect the two terminal atoms of the N2 molecule with one single N≡N bond. In this stage, use one nitrogen atom on the outside of the N2 molecule to the other terminal nitrogen atom in the molecular geometry.

Count how many electrons from the outermost valence shell have been used in the N2 structure so far. N≡N triple bond carries two electrons because the nitrogen atom is connected to another nitrogen atom by N≡N triple bonds. Bond pairings of N≡N are what they’re called.

So, out of the total of 10 valence electrons available for the N2 Lewis structure, we used four electrons for the N2 molecule’s one N≡N triple bond. The N2 molecule has three lone pairs of electrons in the two-terminal nitrogen atoms.

Place the valence electrons in the N≡N bond pair starting with the one terminal nitrogen, another nitrogen atom in the N2 molecule. In the N2 Lewis structure diagram, we always begin by introducing valence electrons from the terminal nitrogen atom(in step1). As a result, wrap around the terminal nitrogen atom’s bond pair valence electrons first (see figure for step1).

The nitrogen atom in the molecule gets only 10 electrons around its molecular structure. This central nitrogen atom is octet stable. But it has three lone pairs. Nitrogen (N2) is a colorless gas. Nitrogen is very corrosive in nature. It is one of the very reactive chemical reagents.

Nitrogen requires 8 electrons in its outermost valence shell to complete the molecular octet stability, two electrons bond pairs in one N≡N triple bond, and three lone pairs in the terminal nitrogen atom. Nitrogen already shares 8 electrons to the one N≡N triple bonds.

We’ve positioned 8 electrons around the one-terminal nitrogen atoms(step-1), which is represented by a dot, in the N2 molecular structure above. The nitrogen atom completes its molecular octet stability in the N2 molecule because it possesses 6 electrons in its (one N≡N triple bonds) bond pairs with one nitrogen in the outermost valence shell.

How to draw N2 Lewis Structure

Count how many outermost valence shell electrons have been used so far using the N2 Lewis structure. One electron bond pairs are shown as dots in the N2 chemical structure, whereas one triple bond contains two electrons. The outermost valence shell electrons of the N2 molecule(bond pairs) are 6 as a result of the calculation. The total valence electron in an nitrogen atom is 8.

So far, we’ve used 8 of the N2 Lewis structure’s total 10 outermost valence shell electrons. Three lone pairs of electrons on each nitrogen atoms in the linear or tetrahedral geometry of the N2 molecule.

Complete the terminal N2 atom stability and, if necessary, apply a covalent bond. The terminal nitrogen atom undergoes octet stability(due to one triple bond pair of electrons).

The core atom in the N2 Lewis structure is nitrogen, which is bonded to the one terminal nitrogen atom by triple bonds (one N≡N). With the help of one triple bond, it already shares 8 electrons. As a result, the nitrogen follows the octet rule and has 8 electrons surrounding it on the one terminal of the N2 molecule’s linear or tetrahedral geometry.

How to calculate the formal charge on nitrogen and other nitrogen atoms in N2 Lewis Structure?

Calculating formal charge on the nitrogen of N2 molecule:

The formal charge on the N2 molecule’s nitrogen central atom often corresponds to the actual charge on that nitrogen terminal atom. In the following computation, the formal charge will be calculated on the terminal nitrogen atom of the N2 Lewis dot structure.

To calculate the formal charge on the terminal nitrogen atom of the N2 molecule by using the following formula:

The formal charge on the nitrogen atom of N2 molecule= (V. E(N)– L.E(N) – 1/2(B.E))

V.E (N) = Valence electron in a nitrogen atom of N2 molecule

L.E(N) = Lone pairs of an electron in the nitrogen atom of the N2 molecule.

B.E = Bond pair electron in F atom of N2 molecule

calculation of formal charge on nitrogen atom in N2 molecule

The nitrogen terminal atom (one triple bond connected to one nitrogen atom) of the N2 molecule has five valence electrons, three lone pairs of electrons(six electrons), and 2 bonding pairing valence electrons. Put these values for the nitrogen atom in the formula above.

Formal charge on nitrogen atom of N2 molecule = (5- 2-(6/2)) =0

In the Lewis structure of N2, the formal charge on the terminal nitrogen atom is zero.

Summary:

In this post, we discussed the method to construct the N2 Lewis structure. First, the valence electrons are placed around the two nitrogen atoms. Finally, when we combined the first and second steps. It gives N2 Lewis structure. Need to remember that, if you follow the above-said method, you can construct molecular dot structure very easily.

What is the N2 Lewis structure?

N2 Lewis structure is dot representation

What is the formal charge on the N2 Lewis structure?

Zero charges on the N2 molecular structure

The polarity of the molecules

The polarity of the molecules are listed as follows

Lewis Structure and Molecular Geometry

Lewis structure and molecular geometry of molecules are listed below

External Reference:

Information on nitrogen(N2)

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