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NaCl Molecular Geometry - Science Education and Tutorials

NaCl Molecular Geometry

Sodium chloride(NaCl) has the composition of one chlorine and one sodium atom. What is the molecular geometry of sodium chloride?. Drawing and predicting the NaCl molecular geometry is very easy by following the given method. Here in this post, we described step by step to construct NaCl molecular geometry. Chlorine and sodium come from the 17th and 1st family groups in the periodic table. Chlorine and sodium have seven and one valence electrons respectively.

Key Points To Consider When drawing The NaCl Molecular Geometry

A three-step approach for drawing the NaCl molecular can be used. The first step is to sketch the molecular geometry of the NaCl molecule, to calculate the lone pairs of the electron in the central chlorine atom; the second step is to calculate the NaCl hybridization, and the third step is to give perfect notation for the NaCl molecular geometry.

The NaCl molecular geometry is a diagram that illustrates the number of valence electrons and bond electron pairs in the NaCl molecule in a specific geometric manner. The geometry of the NaCl molecule ion can then be predicted using the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR Theory) and molecular hybridization theory, which states that molecules will choose the NaCl geometrical shape in which the electrons have from one another in the specific molecular structure.

Finally, you must add their bond polarities characteristics to compute the strength of the one Na-Cl single bonds (dipole moment properties of the NaCl molecular geometry). One sodium-chlorine single bonds in the sodium chloride(NaCl), for example, are polarised toward the more electronegative value chlorine atom, and because (Na-Cl) single bonds have the same size and polarity, their sum is nonzero due to the NaCl molecule’s bond dipole moment due to pulling the electron cloud to the two side of linear geometry, and the NaCl molecule is classified as a polar molecule.

NaCl Molecular Geometry

The molecule of sodium chloride(with linear shape NaCl molecular geometry) is tilted at 180 degrees bond angle of Na-Cl. It has a difference in electronegativity values between chlorine and sodium atoms, with chlorine’s pull the electron cloud being greater than sodium’s. But bond polarity of Na-Cl is not canceled to each other in the linear geometry. As a result, it has a nonzero permanent dipole moment in its molecular structure. The NaCl molecule has a nonzero dipole moment due to an unequal charge distribution of negative and positive charges in the linear geometry.

Overview: NaCl electron and molecular geometry

According to the VSEPR theory, the NaCl molecule ion possesses linear molecular geometry. Because the center atom, chlorine, has one Na-Cl single bond with the one sodium atom surrounding it. The Na-Cl bond angle is 180 degrees in the linear NaCl molecular geometry. The NaCl molecule has a linear geometry shape because it contains one sodium atom in the linear and four corners with four lone pairs of electrons.

There is one Na-Cl single bond at the NaCl molecular geometry. After linking the one sodium atom and four lone pairs of electrons on the chlorine atom (as chloride ion) in the linear form, it maintains the linear-shaped structure. In the NaCl molecular geometry, the Na-Cl single bond has stayed in the one terminal and four lone pairs of electrons on the chlorine atom of the linear molecule.

The center chlorine atom of NaCl has four lone pairs of electrons, resulting in linear NaCl electron geometry. However, the molecular geometry of NaCl looks linear-shaped and has four lone pairs of electrons on the chlorine of the NaCl geometry. It’s the NaCl molecule’s slight asymmetrical geometry. As a result, the NaCl molecule is more polar.

How to find NaCl hybridization and molecular geometry

Calculating lone pairs of electrons on chlorine in the NaCl geometry:

  1. Determine the number of lone pairs of electrons in the core chlorine atom of the Lewis structure. Because the lone pairs of electrons on the chlorine atom are mostly responsible for the molecule geometry planar, we need to calculate out how many there are on the central chlorine atom of the NaCl Lewis structure.

Use the formula below to find the lone pair on the chlorine atom of the NaCl molecule.

L.P(Cl) = V.E(Cl) – N.A(Na-Cl)


Lone pair on the central chlorine atom in NaCl = L.P(Cl)

The core central chlorine atom’s valence electron in NaCl = V.E(Cl)

Number of Na-Cl bond = N.A (Na-Cl)

calculation for chlorine atom lone pair in NaCl molecule.

For instance of NaCl, the central atom, chlorine, has seven electrons in its outermost valence shell, one Na-Cl single bond connection. This gives a total of one connection.

As a result of this, L.P(Cl) = (8 –0)=8

The lone pair of electrons in the chlorine atom of the NaCl molecule is four.

Calculating lone pair of electrons on sodium in the NaCl geometry:

Finding lone pair of electrons for the terminal sodium atom is similar to the central chlorine atom. We use the following formula as given below

Use the formula below to find the lone pair on the sosium atom of the NaCl molecule.

L.P(Na) = V.E(Na) – N.A(Na-Cl)


Lone pair on the terminal sodium atom in NaCl = L.P(Na)

Terminal sodium atom’s valence electron in NaCl= V.E(Na)

Number of Na-Cl bonds = N.A ( Na-Cl)

calculation for sodium atom lone pair in NaCl molecule.

For instance of NaCl, their terminal atoms, sodium, have one electron in its outermost valence shell, one Na-Cl single bond connection. This gives a total of one Na-Cl single bond connection. But we are considering only one connection for the calculation.

As a result of this, L.P(Na) = (0 –0)=0

The lone pair of electrons in the sodium atom of the NaCl molecule is zero. One sodium atom is connected with the central chlorine atom.

In the NaCl electron geometry structure, the lone pairs on the central chlorine atom are four, lone pairs of electrons in the sodium atom have zero. One sodium atom has no lone pairs of electrons.

It means there are four lone pairs of electrons in the core chlorine atom (as chloride ion). Four lone pair of electrons on the central chlorine atom is responsible for the linear nature of NaCl molecular geometry. But in the structure sodium atom is polarised sidewise in their linear geometry.

The four lone pairs of electrons are placed at another side of the NaCl geometry. Because the sodium atom is a lower electronegative value as compared with other atoms in the NaCl molecule. One sodium atom is polarized towards the sidewise in the NaCl structure.

But in reality, the NaCl has four lone pairs of electrons in its structure. This makes the NaCl more asymmetrical in the structure of the molecule. Because there is electric repulsion between bond pairs and lone pairs.

But some sort of interaction is there between sodium empty hole and lone pairs of electrons of chlorine of another NaCl molecule. Here, sodium of one molecule acts as an acceptor and chlorine of another molecule as a donor. This is called sodium bonding between the two NaCl molecules. This is one of the main intermolecular forces in NaCl.

But in the central, chlorine atom has four lone pairs of electrons and these lone pair electrons are placed in the four corners of the tetrahedral.

Calculate the number of molecular hybridizations of the NaCl molecule

What is NaCl hybridization? This is a very fundamental question in the field of molecular chemistry. All the molecules are made of atoms. In chemistry, atoms are the fundamental particles. There are four different types of orbitals in chemistry. They are named s, p, d, and f orbitals.

The entire periodic table arrangement is based on these orbital theories. Atoms in the periodic table are classified as follows:

s- block elements

p- block elements

d-block elements

f-block elements

Atoms are classified in the periodic table

NaCl molecule is made of one chlorine and a sodium atom. The sodium and chlorine atoms have s and p orbitals. But sodium atom has only s orbital in the ground state. Sodium comes as the third element in the periodic table. The chlorine atom also belongs to the halogen family group. But it falls as the second element in the periodic table.

When these atoms combine to form the NaCl molecule, its atomic orbitals are mixed and form unique molecular orbitals due to hybridization.

How do you find the NaCl molecule’s hybridization? We must now determine the molecular hybridization number of NaCl.

The formula of NaCl molecular hybridization is as follows:

No. Hyb of NaCl= N.A(Na-Cl bond) + L.P(Cl)

No. Hy of NaCl = the number of hybridizations of NaCl

Number of Na-Cl bonds = N.A (Na-Cl bonds)

Lone pair on the central chlorine atom = L.P(Cl)

Calculation for hybridization number for NaCl molecule

In the NaCl molecule, chlorine is a core central atom with one sodium atom connected to it. It has four lone pairs of electrons on chlorine (as a chloride ion). The number of NaCl hybridizations (No. Hyb of NaCl) can then be estimated using the formula below.

No. Hyb of NaCl= 4+0=4

The NaCl molecule ion hybridization is four. The chlorine and sodium atoms have s and p orbitals. The sp3 hybridization of the NaCl molecule is formed when one s orbital and three p orbitals join together to form the NaCl molecular orbital.

Molecular Geometry Notation for NaCl Molecule :

Determine the form of NaCl molecular geometry using VSEPR theory. The AXN technique is commonly used when the VSEPR theory is used to calculate the shape of the NaCl molecule.

The AXN notation of NaCl molecule is as follows:

The central chlorine atom in the NaCl molecule is denoted by the letter A.

The bound pairs (one Na-Br bonds) of electrons to the core chlorine atom are represented by X.

The lone pairs of electrons on the central chlorine atom are denoted by the letter N.

Notation for NaCl molecular geometry

We know that chlorine is the core atom, with no electron pair bound (one ionic bond Na-Br) and four lone pairs of electrons. The general molecular geometry formula for NaCl is AN4.

According to the VSEPR theory, if the NaCl molecule ion has an AN4 generic formula, the molecular geometry and electron geometry will both be linear-shaped forms.

Name of MoleculeSodium chloride
Chemical molecular formulaNaCl
Molecular geometry of NaCl linear
Electron geometry of NaCl linear
Hybridization of NaClsp3
Bond angle (Na-Br)180º degree
Total Valence electron for NaCl8
The formal charge of NaCl on chlorine0

Summary:

In this post, we discussed the method to construct NaCl molecular geometry, the method to find the lone pairs of electrons in the central NaCl atom, NaCl hybridization, and NaCl molecular notation. Need to remember that, if you follow the above-said method, you can construct the NaCl molecular structure very easily.

What is NaCl Molecular geometry?

NaCl Molecular geometry is an electronic structural representation of molecules.

What is the molecular notation for NaCl molecule?

NaCl molecular notation is AX1N3.

The polarity of the molecules

The polarity of the molecules are listed as follows

Lewis Structure and Molecular Geometry

Lewis structure and molecular geometry of molecules are listed below

External Reference:

Information on sodium chloride(NaCl) molecule

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