The Nitrogen trichloride chemical formula is NCl3. Drawing NCl3 Lewis Structure is very easy to by using the following method. Here in this post, we described step by step method to construct NCl3 Lewis Structure. The Nitrogen and chlorine elements come as members of the nitrogen and halogen family groups from the periodic table respectively. The valence electrons in Nitrogen and chlorine are five and seven respectively. The branch of Nitrogen halogen compound chemistry is used to make chemicals reagents for organic chemical reactions.
Key Points To Consider When Drawing The NCl3 Electron Dot Structure
A three-step approach for drawing the NCl3 Lewis structure can be used. The first step is to sketch the Lewis structure of the NCl3 molecule, to add valence electrons around the Nitrogen atom; the second step is to add valence electrons to the three chlorine atoms, and the final step is to combine the step1 and step2 to get the NCl3 Lewis Structure.
The NCl3 Lewis structure is a diagram that illustrates the number of valence electrons and bond electron pairs in the NCl3 molecule. The geometry of the NCl3 molecule can then be predicted using the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR Theory), which states that molecules will choose the NCl3 geometrical shape in which the electrons have from one another.
Finally, you must add their bond polarities to compute the strength of the three N-Cl single bonds (dipole moment properties of the NCl3 molecule). The phosphorus-chlorine bonds in Nitrogen trichloride(NCl3), for example, are polarised toward the more electronegative chlorine in NCl3 molecule, and because both bonds have the same size and are located around three chlorine terminals of the trigonal pyramidal with one lone pair (in total two electrons) on the Nitrogen atom, their sum of dipole moment is nonzero due to the NCl3 molecule’s bond dipole moment and more electron polarity to the chlorine atoms. Because each three N-Cl bonds polarity not canceled each other in the NCl3 molecule due to the presence of one lone pair of electrons. The Nitrogen trichloride(NCl3) molecule is classified as a polar molecule.
The molecule of Nitrogen trichloride (with trigonal pyramidal molecular geometry) is tilted, the bond angles between Nitrogen and chlorine are 100 degrees. It has a difference in electronegativity values between Nitrogen and chlorine atoms, with central Nitrogen’s pull being less than terminal chlorine’s in the NCl3 molecule. But they do not cancel each other due to the asymmetrical trigonal pyramidal with one lone pair in the molecular geometry of the NCl3 molecule.
As a result, it has the nonzero dipole moment. The NCl3 molecule has a nonzero dipole moment due to an unequal charge distribution of negative and positive charges. But both Nitrogen and chlorine atoms fall on the nitrogen and halogen family groups in the periodic table respectively. The chlorine atom is a more electronegative value than Nitrogen in the NCl3 molecule. The NCl3 molecule has the net dipole moment of 0.6D value in the ground state energy state.
NCl3 molecule has three N-Cl single bonds. Its dipole moment in the ground state is totally different as compared with the excited state. If it absorbs light may be from visible or UV light. It undergoes pi to pi star and n to pi star transition from ground state energy level to excited state energy level. In the excited state energy level, the NCl3 molecule shows a definite dipole moment. But it is very dynamics.
Molecules can be classified as polar or nonpolar. The molecule polar behaves in a different manner as compared to nonpolar.
Overview: NCl3 Lewis Structure
The central atom is phosphorus, which is bordered on three terminals with chlorine atoms( in trigonal pyramidal geometry), and one lone pair on the central Nitrogen atom in the trigonal pyramidal molecular geometry. Nitrogen has five outermost valence electrons, indicating that it possesses five electrons in its outermost shell, whereas chlorine also has seven valence electrons in its outermost shell. To complete the octet of the Nitrogen and chlorine atoms requires three and one valence electrons on each of their outermost shell respectively.
Three chlorine atoms establish covalent connections with the central Nitrogen atom as a result, leaving the Nitrogen atom with one lone pair. There is one lone pair of electrons on the Nitrogen central atom that resists the bond pairs of the three N-Cl bonds. According to VSEPR theory, the single N-Cl bond pairs polarity lead the NCl3 molecule to take on the trigonal pyramidal geometry structure.
The NCl3 molecule’s three N-Cl bonds are arranged in symmetrical polarity order around the trigonal pyramidal molecular geometry, giving rise to the NCl3 molecular shape. The NCl3 molecule has a trigonal pyramidal molecular geometry because there is an electrical repulsion between the lone pairs of electrons in Nitrogen and three single bond pairs(N-Cl) of the NCl3 molecule.
Lewis structure of NCl3 has dot electron representative structure. Valence electrons of atoms undergo orbitals mixing in the chemical reactions, giving new types of molecular species of NCl3. The molecule is nothing but a bundle of valence electrons from the atoms. But it is converted to bond pairs and lone pairs in the molecular structure.
Electronegative value Difference Calculation of NCl3 Molecule:
Nitrogen and chlorine Electronegative difference in NCl3:
The Nitrogen atom has an electronegativity of 2.19, while chlorine has an electronegativity of 3.16 in the NCl3 molecule. The difference in electronegativity of Nitrogen and chlorine can be estimated using the method below.
The electronegative value difference between Nitrogen and chlorine in NCl3 molecule
Electronegativity value of Nitrogen = 3.04
Electronegativity value of chlorine= 3.16
Difference of electronegativity value between Nitrogen and chlorine in NCl3 molecule = 3.16 – 3.04 = 0.12Electronegativity difference between N-Cl bond calculation of NCl3 molecule
The electronegative difference between Nitrogen and chlorine is less than 0.5. This indicated the bond polarity moves near to polar nature. N-Cl bond polarity in the NCl3 molecule is polar.
Because of this difference in electronegativity of Nitrogen and chlorine atoms, the NCl3 molecule’s N-Cl bond becomes polar. The total net dipole moment of the NCl3 molecule is nonzero due to the noncancellation of the bond dipole moment in the trigonal pyramidal geometry. The electronegativity of an atom is the strength with which it may attract bound electron pairs to its side. The polarity of NCl3 is discussed in our previous post.
As a result, the N-Cl bond’s dipole moment is high due to the polarization of the bonds and one lone pair of electrons on phosphorus, and all N-Cl bonds’ dipoles are arranged in the asymmetrical NCl3 molecular geometry. The NCl3 molecule has a nonzero net dipole moment.
The electron dot structure of the NCl3 molecule is also known as the NCl3 Lewis structure. It determines the number of outermost valence electrons as well as the electrons engaged in the NCl3 molecule’s bond formation. The outermost valence electrons of the NCl3 molecule must be understood while considering the Lewis structure of the molecule.
The Nitrogen atom is the middle element in NCl3 molecular geometry, with five electrons in its outermost valence electron shell, whereas the chlorine atom has seven electrons in its outermost valence electron shell. The chlorine atom has seven valence electrons.
The NCl3 has a total of 26 valence electrons as a result of the foregoing above-said reasoning. With the core central Nitrogen atom, the three terminals with three chlorine atoms form covalent bonds, leaving the Nitrogen atom with one lone pair in the middle of trigonal pyramidal geometry.
Because lone pairs on the terminal chlorine atoms create interaction with N-Cl bond pairs(but it is negligible in the ground state of the NCl3 molecule). The bond angle of the Cl-N-Cl bond in the trigonal pyramidal molecular geometry is approximately 100 degrees. This angle is less than the CH4 molecule bond angle. The N-Cl bond length is 175pm(picometer).
To sketch the NCl3 Lewis structure by following these instructions:
Step-1: NCl3 Lewis dot Structure by counting valence electrons on the Nitrogen atom
To calculate the valence electron of each atom in NCl3, look for its periodic group from the periodic table. The nitrogen and halogen group families, which are the 15th and 17th groups in the periodic table, are both made up of Nitrogen and chlorine atoms respectively. In their outermost shells, chlorine and Nitrogen have seven and five valence electrons respectively.
Calculate the total number of valence electrons in the NCl3 molecule’s outermost valence shell. The first step is to determine how many electrons are in the NCl3 Lewis structure’s outermost valence shell. An electron in an atom’s outermost shell is known as a valence electron. It is represented by dots in the NCl3 Lewis diagram. The NCl3 molecule’s core Nitrogen atom can be represented as follows:
Total outermost valence shell electron of Nitrogen atom in NCl3= 5
Total outermost valence shell electron of chlorine atom in NCl3= 7
The NCl3 molecule has one central Nitrogen and three chlorine atoms. Then the total outermost valence shell electrons can be calculated as follows
∴ Total outermost valence shell electrons available for NCl3 Lewis structure( dot structure) = 5+3*7= 26 valence electrons in NCl3.calculation of total valence electron of NCl3 molecule
Choose the atom with the least electronegative value atom and insert it in the center of the molecular geometry of NCl3. We’ll choose the least electronegative value atom in the NCl3 molecule to place in the center of the NCl3 Lewis structure diagram in this phase. The electronegativity value in periodic groups grows from left to right in the periodic table and drops from top to bottom.
The first step is to put five valence electrons around the Nitrogen atom as given in the figure.
Step-2: Lewis Structure of NCl3 for counting valence electrons around the terminal chlorine atoms
As a result, Nitrogen is the first atom in the periodic table’s nitrogen family group. Chlorine is the second member of the halogen family. The electronegative value of the chlorine atom is higher than that of the Nitrogen atom in the NCl3 molecule. Furthermore, chlorine has a seven electrons limit since Nitrogen is the less electronegative element in the NCl3 molecule.
In the NCl3 Lewis structure diagram, the Nitrogen atom can be the center atom of the molecule. As a result, central Nitrogen in the NCl3 Lewis structure, with all three chlorine atoms arranged in a trigonal pyramidal geometry.
Add valence electrons around the chlorine atom, as given in the figure.
Step-3: Lewis dot Structure for NCl3 generated from step-1 and step-2
Connect the exterior and core central atom of the NCl3 molecule with three single N-Cl bonds. In this stage, use three chlorine atoms on the outside of the NCl3 molecule to the central Nitrogen atom in the middle.
Count how many electrons from the outermost valence shell have been used in the NCl3 structure so far. Each N-Cl single bond carries two electrons because each Nitrogen atom is connected to three chlorine atoms by three N-Cl single bonds. Bond pairings of N-Cl are what they’re called.
So, out of the total of 26 valence electrons available for the NCl3 Lewis structure, we used six electrons for the NCl3 molecule’s three N-Cl single bonds. The NCl3 molecule has one lone pair of electrons in the central Nitrogen atom.
Place the valence electrons in the N-Cl bond pairs starting with the core phosphorus, three chlorine atoms in the NCl3 molecule. In the NCl3 Lewis structure diagram, we always begin by introducing valence electrons from the central Nitrogen atom(in step1). As a result, wrap around the central Nitrogen atom’s bond pair valence electrons first (see figure for step1).
The Nitrogen atom in the molecule gets only 8 electrons around its molecular structure. This central Nitrogen atom is octet stable. But it has one lone pair. Nitrogen is a brownish solid in nature. Nitrogen catch fire in the exposure to air. But Nitrogen is used in matchboxes and firecrackers.
Chlorine(Cl2) is in the gaseous state at normal temperature and pressure. It is used as a chlorinating agent in the field of organic chemistry. It is a highly corrosive gas. It is responsible for dry corrosion in the metal bodies. It is very reactive to bio-micro organisms. It is also used as a disinfectant in water treatment plants.
Nitrogen requires 8 electrons in its outermost valence shell to complete the molecular octet stability, six electrons bond pairs in three N-Cl single bonds, and one lone pair in the central Nitrogen atom. Then lone pair of electrons on the chlorine atoms of the NCl3 molecule is placed in a trigonal pyramidal geometry. Nitrogen already shares 8 electrons to the three N-Cl single bonds. Then place the valence electron in the chlorine atoms, it placed around seven electrons on each atom(step-2). 18 valence electrons were placed around three chlorine atoms as lone pairs of electrons.
We’ve positioned 18 electrons around the three-terminal chlorine atoms(step-3), which is represented by a dot, in the NCl3 molecular structure above. The Nitrogen atom completes its molecular octet stability in the NCl3 molecule because it possesses six electrons in its (three N-Cl single bonds) bond pairs with three chlorine in the outermost valence shell.
Count how many outermost valence shell electrons have been used so far using the NCl3 Lewis structure. three electron bond pairs are shown as dots in the NCl3 chemical structure, whereas three single bonds each contain two electrons. The outermost valence shell electrons of the NCl3 molecule(bond pairs) are six as a result of the calculation. The total valence electron in a Nitrogen atom is 8.
So far, we’ve used 26 of the NCl3 Lewis structure’s total 26 outermost valence shell electrons. One lone pair of electrons on the Nitrogen atom in the trigonal pyramidal geometry of the NCl3 molecule.
Complete the middle Nitrogen atom stability and, if necessary, apply a covalent bond. The central Nitrogen atom undergoes octet stability(due to three single bond pairs of electrons).
The core atom in the NCl3 Lewis structure is phosphorus, which is bonded to the three chlorine atoms by single bonds (three N-Cl). With the help of three single bonds, it already shares 8 electrons. As a result, the Nitrogen follows the octet rule and has 8 electrons surrounding it on the three terminals of the NCl3 molecule’s trigonal pyramidal geometry.
How to calculate the formal charge on Nitrogen and Chlorine atoms in NCl3 Lewis Structure?
Calculating formal charge on the Nitrogen of NCl3 molecule:
The formal charge on the NCl3 molecule’s Nitrogen central atom often corresponds to the actual charge on that Nitrogen central atom. In the following computation, the formal charge will be calculated on the central Nitrogen atom of the NCl3 Lewis dot structure.
To calculate the formal charge on the central Nitrogen atom of the NCl3 molecule by using the following formula:
The formal charge on the Nitrogen atom of NCl3 molecule= (V. E(N)– L.E(N) – 1/2(B.E))
V.E (N) = Valence electron in a Nitrogen atom of NCl3 molecule
L.E(N) = Lone pairs of an electron in the Nitrogen atom of the NCl3 molecule.
B.E = Bond pair electron in P atom of NCl3 moleculecalculation of formal charge on Nitrogen atom in NCl3 molecule
The Nitrogen core atom (three single bonds connected to three chlorine atoms ) of the NCl3 molecule has five valence electrons, one lone pair of electrons(two electrons), and six bonding pairing valence electrons. Put these values for the Nitrogen atom in the formula above.
Formal charge on Nitrogen atom of NCl3 molecule = (5- 2-(6/2)) =0
In the Lewis structure of NCl3, the formal charge on the central Nitrogen atom is zero.
Calculating formal charge on the chlorine atom of NCl3 molecule:
The formal charge on the NCl3 molecule’s chlorine terminal atoms often corresponds to the actual charge on that chlorine terminal atoms. In the following computation, the formal charge will be calculated on the terminal chlorine atom of the NCl3 Lewis dot structure.
To calculate the formal charge on the terminal chlorine atom of the NCl3 molecule by using the following formula:
The formal charge on the chlorine atom of NCl3 molecule= (V. E(Cl)– L.E(Cl) – 1/2(B.E))
V.E (Cl) = Valence electron in a chlorine atom of NCl3 molecule
L.E(Cl) = Lone pairs of an electron in the chlorine atom of the NCl3 molecule.
B.E = Bond pair electron in Cl atom of NCl3 moleculecalculation of formal charge on chlorine atom in NCl3 molecule
The chlorine terminal atoms of the NCl3 molecule have seven valence electrons, three lone pairs of electrons(six electrons), and two bonding pairing valence electrons(single bond). Put these values for the chlorine atom in the formula above.
Formal charge on chlorine atom of NCl3 molecule = (7- 6-(2/2)) =0
In the Lewis structure of NCl3, the formal charge on the terminal chlorine atom is zero.
In this post, we discussed the method to construct the NCl3 Lewis structure. First, the valence electrons are placed around the Nitrogen atom. Second, place the valence electron on the chlorine atoms. Finally, when we combined the first and second steps. It gives NCl3 Lewis structure. Need to remember that, if you follow the above-said method, you can construct molecular dot structure very easily.
What is the NCl3 Lewis structure?
NCl3 Lewis structure is dot representation
What is the formal charge on the NCl3 Lewis structure?
Zero charges on the NCl3 molecular structure
The polarity of the molecules
The polarity of the molecules are listed as follows
- Polarity of BeCl2
- Polarity of SF4
- Polarity of CH2Cl2
- Polarity of NH3
- Polarity of XeF4
- Polarity of BF3
- Polarity of NH4+
- Polarity of CHCl3
- Polarity of BrF3
- Polarity of BrF5
- Polarity of SO3
- Polarity of SCl2
- Polarity of PCl3
- Polarity of H2S
- Polarity of NO2+
- Polarity of HBr
- Polarity of HCl
- Polarity of CH3F
- Polarity of SO2
- Polarity of CH4
Lewis Structure and Molecular Geometry
Lewis structure and molecular geometry of molecules are listed below
- CH4 Lewis structure and CH4 Molecular geometry
- BeCl2 Lewis Structure and BeCl2 Molecular geometry
- SF4 Lewis Structure and SF4 Molecular geometry
- CH2Cl2 Lewis Structure and CH2Cl2 Molecular geometry
- NH3 Lewis Structure and NH3 Molecular geometry
- XeF4 Lewis Structure and XeF4 Molecular geometry
- BF3 Lewis Structure and BF3 Molecular geometry
- NH4+ Lewis Structure and NH4+ Molecular geometry
- CHCl3 Lewis Structure and CHCl3 Molecular geometry
- BrF3 Lewis Structure and BrF3 Molecular geometry
- BrF5 Lewis Structure and BrF5 Molecular geometry
- SO3 Lewis Structure and SO3 Molecular geometry
- SCl2 Lewis structure and SCl2 Molecular Geometry
- PCl3 Lewis structure and PCl3 Molecular Geometry
- H2S Lewis structure and H2S Molecular Geometry