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How to Draw O2 Lewis Structure? - Science Education and Tutorials

# How to Draw O2 Lewis Structure?

The oxygen gas chemical formula is O2. Drawing O2 Lewis Structure is very easy to by using the following method. Here in this post, we described a step by step method to construct the O2 Lewis Structure. The diatomic oxygen molecule elements come as members of the oxygen family group from the periodic table. The valence electrons in the oxygen atom are six. Oxygen gas is used to make chemical corrosive reagents for organic chemical reactions as a fluorinating agent in organic chemistry. It is used as a disinfectant.

## Key Points To Consider When Drawing The O2 Electron Dot Structure

A three-step approach for drawing the O2 Lewis structure can be used. The first step is to sketch the Lewis structure of the O2 molecule, to add valence electrons around the two oxygen atoms, and the final step is to combine the two oxygen diatomic atoms to get the O2 Lewis Structure.

The O2 Lewis structure is a diagram that illustrates the number of valence electrons and bond electron pairs in the O2 molecule. The geometry of the O2 molecule can then be predicted using the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR Theory), which states that molecules will choose the O2 geometrical shape in which the electrons have from one another.

Finally, you must add their bond polarities to compute the strength of the one O=O double bonds (dipole moment properties of the O2 molecule). The oxygen-oxygen bonds in oxygen molecule(O2), for example, are polarised equally the more electronegative oxygen in O2 molecule, and because both bonds have the same size and are located around one oxygen terminal of the two tetrahedral or linear structure with three lone pairs (in total six electrons) on the oxygen atoms, their sum of dipole moment is zero due to the O2 molecule’s bond dipole moment and two oxygen atoms canceled the polarity. Because O=O bonds polarity is canceled in the O2 molecule due to the presence of two equal sharing in the linear geometry. The oxygen(O2) molecule is classified as a nonpolar molecule.

The molecule of diatomic oxygen(with tetrahedral or linear-shaped molecular geometry) is tilted, the bond angles between oxygen and oxygen are 180 degrees. It has no difference in electronegativity values between oxygen and other oxygen atoms, with both oxygen’s pull being equal in the O2 molecule. But they canceled each other due to the symmetrical linear structure with three lone pairs in the molecular geometry of the O2 molecule.

As a result, it has the zero dipole moment. The O2 molecule has a zero dipole moment due to an equal charge distribution of negative charges on both oxygen terminals. But both oxygen atoms fall on the oxygen family groups in the periodic table. The oxygen atom is a more electronegative value than iodine atom in the oxygen family group. The O2 molecule has the net dipole moment of 0D value in the ground state energy level.

O2 molecule has one O=O double bond. Its dipole moment in the ground state is totally different as compared with the excited state. If it absorbs light may be from visible or UV light. It undergoes pi to pi star and n to pi star transition from ground state energy level to excited state energy level. In the excited state energy level, the O2 molecule shows a definite dipole moment. But it is very dynamic in nature.

Molecules can be classified as polar or nonpolar. The molecule polar behaves in a different manner as compared to nonpolar.

## Overview: O2 Lewis Structure

The terminal atom is oxygen, which is bordered on two terminals with oxygen atoms( in tetrahedral or linear geometry), and three lone pairs on the two oxygen atoms in the tetrahedral or linear molecular geometry. Oxygen has six outermost valence electrons, indicating that it possesses six electrons in its outermost shell. To complete the octet of the two oxygen atoms requires one valence electron on each of their outermost shell.

One oxygen atom establishes covalent connections with the other terminal oxygen atom as a result, leaving each oxygen atom with three lone pairs. There are three lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen terminal atom that resists the bond pairs of the O=O bond. According to VSEPR theory, the O=O bond pairs polarity lead the O2 molecule to take on the linear or tetrahedral geometry structure.

The O2 molecule’s one O=O bond is arranged in symmetrical polarity order around the linear or tetrahedral molecular geometry, giving rise to the O2 molecular shape. The bond order of the O2 molecule is one. The O2 molecule has a tetrahedral or linear molecular geometry because there is an electrical repulsion between the lone pairs of electrons in oxygen and one double bond pair(O=O) of the O2 molecule.

Lewis structure of O2 has dot electron representative structure. Valence electrons of atoms undergo orbitals mixing in the chemical reactions, giving new types of molecular species of O2. The molecule is nothing but a bundle of valence electrons from the atoms. But it is converted to bond pairs and lone pairs in the molecular structure.

## Electronegative value Difference Calculation of O2 Molecule:

### Oxygen and oxygen Electronegative difference in O2 molecule:

The oxygen atom has an electronegativity of 3.44 in the O2 molecule. The difference in electronegativity of oxygen and oxygen can be estimated using the method below.

The electronegative value difference between oxygen and oxygen in O2 molecule

Electronegativity value of oxygen= 3.44

Electronegativity value of oxygen= 3.44

Difference of electronegativity value between oxygen and oxygen in O2 molecule = 3.44 – 3.44 = 0.00

Electronegativity difference between O=O bond calculation of O2 molecule

The electronegative difference between oxygen and oxygen is less than 0.5. This indicated the bond polarity moves near to nonpolar nature. O=O bond polarity in the O2 molecule is nonpolar.

Because of this difference in electronegativity of oxygen and oxygen atoms, the O2 molecule’s O=O bond becomes nonpolar. The total net dipole moment of the O2 molecule is zero due to the cancellation of the bond dipole moment in the linear or tetrahedral geometry due to the presence of three lone pairs of electrons. The electronegativity of an atom is the strength with which it may attract bound electron pairs to its side. The polarity and Lewis structure of HF are discussed in our previous post.

As a result, the O=O bond’s dipole moment is higher due to the polarization of the bonds and three lone pairs of electrons on oxygen, and all O=O bonds’ dipoles are arranged in the symmetrical O2 molecular geometry. The O2 molecule has a zero net dipole moment.

The electron dot structure of the O2 molecule is also known as the O2 Lewis structure. It determines the number of outermost valence electrons as well as the electrons engaged in the O2 molecule’s bond formation. The outermost valence electrons of the O2 molecule must be understood while constructing the Lewis structure of the molecule.

The oxygen atom is the terminal element in O2 molecular geometry, with six electrons in its outermost valence electron shell.

The O2 has a total of 12 valence electrons as a result of the foregoing above-said reasoning. With the terminal oxygen atom, the other terminal with one oxygen atom forms covalent bond, leaving the oxygen atom with three lone pairs(8 electron total) in the middle of linear or tetrahedral geometry.

Because three lone pairs on the terminal oxygen atoms create interaction with O=O bond pairs(but it is negligible in the ground state of the O2 molecule). The bond angle of the O=O bond in the linear or tetrahedral molecular geometry is approximately 180 degrees. This angle is greater than the CH4 molecule bond angle. The O=O bond length is shorter than the Cl-Cl bond length.

## To sketch the O2 Lewis structure by following these instructions:

### Step-1: O2 Lewis dot Structure by counting valence electrons on the oxygen atom

To calculate the valence electron of each atom in O2, look for its periodic group from the periodic table. The oxygen group families, which is the 16th in the periodic table, are made up of two oxygen atoms. In their outermost shells, oxygen and oxygen have six and six valence electrons respectively.

Calculate the total number of valence electrons in the O2 molecule’s outermost valence shell. The first step is to determine how many electrons are in the O2 Lewis structure’s outermost valence shell. An electron in an atom’s outermost shell is known as a valence electron. It is represented by dots in the O2 Lewis diagram. The O2 molecule’s core oxygen atom can be represented as follows:

Total outermost valence shell electron of oxygen atom in O2= 6

Total outermost valence shell electron of oxygen atom in O2= 6

The O2 molecule has one terminal oxygen and other terminal oxygen atoms. Then the total outermost valence shell electrons can be calculated as follows

∴ Total outermost valence shell electrons available for O2 Lewis structure( dot structure) = 6+6= 12 valence electrons  in O2.

calculation of total valence electron of O2 molecule

Choose the atom with the least electronegative value atom and insert it in both terminals of the molecular geometry of O2. We’ll choose the least electronegative value atom in the O2 molecule to place in the terminal of the O2 Lewis structure diagram in this phase.

The first step is to put six valence electrons around the oxygen atom as given in the figure.

### Step-2: Lewis dot Structure for O2 generated from step-1

Connect the two terminal atoms of the O2 molecule with one single O=O bond. In this stage, use one oxygen atom on the outside of the O2 molecule to the other terminal oxygen atom in the molecular geometry.

Count how many electrons from the outermost valence shell have been used in the O2 structure so far. O=O double bond carries two electrons because the oxygen atom is connected to another oxygen atom by O=O double bonds. Bond pairings of O=O are what they’re called.

So, out of the total of 12 valence electrons available for the O2 Lewis structure, we used four electrons for the O2 molecule’s one O=O double bond. The O2 molecule has three lone pairs of electrons in the two-terminal oxygen atoms.

Place the valence electrons in the O=O bond pair starting with the one terminal oxygen, another oxygen atom in the O2 molecule. In the O2 Lewis structure diagram, we always begin by introducing valence electrons from the terminal oxygen atom(in step1). As a result, wrap around the terminal oxygen atom’s bond pair valence electrons first (see figure for step1).

The oxygen atom in the molecule gets only 12 electrons around its molecular structure. This central oxygen atom is octet stable. But it has three lone pairs. Oxygen (O2) is a colorless gas. Oxygen is very corrosive in nature. It is one of the very reactive chemical reagents.

Oxygen requires 8 electrons in its outermost valence shell to complete the molecular octet stability, two electrons bond pairs in one O=O double bond, and three lone pairs in the terminal oxygen atom. Oxygen already shares 8 electrons to the one O=O double bonds.

We’ve positioned 8 electrons around the one-terminal oxygen atoms(step-1), which is represented by a dot, in the O2 molecular structure above. The oxygen atom completes its molecular octet stability in the O2 molecule because it possesses 4 electrons in its (one O=O double bonds) bond pairs with one oxygen in the outermost valence shell.

Count how many outermost valence shell electrons have been used so far using the O2 Lewis structure. One electron bond pairs are shown as dots in the O2 chemical structure, whereas one double bond contains four electrons. The outermost valence shell electrons of the O2 molecule(bond pairs) are 4 as a result of the calculation. The total valence electron in an oxygen atom is 8.

So far, we’ve used 8 of the O2 Lewis structure’s total 12 outermost valence shell electrons. Three lone pairs of electrons on each oxygen atoms in the linear or tetrahedral geometry of the O2 molecule.

Complete the terminal O2 atom stability and, if necessary, apply a covalent bond. The terminal oxygen atom undergoes octet stability(due to one double bond pair of electrons).

The core atom in the O2 Lewis structure is oxygen, which is bonded to the one terminal oxygen atom by double bonds (one O=O). With the help of one double bond, it already shares 8 electrons. As a result, the oxygen follows the octet rule and has 8 electrons surrounding it on the one terminal of the O2 molecule’s linear or tetrahedral geometry.

## How to calculate the formal charge on oxygen and other oxygen atoms in O2 Lewis Structure?

### Calculating formal charge on the oxygen of O2 molecule:

The formal charge on the O2 molecule’s oxygen central atom often corresponds to the actual charge on that oxygen terminal atom. In the following computation, the formal charge will be calculated on the terminal oxygen atom of the O2 Lewis dot structure.

To calculate the formal charge on the terminal oxygen atom of the O2 molecule by using the following formula:

The formal charge on the oxygen atom of O2 molecule= (V. E(O)– L.E(O) – 1/2(B.E))

V.E (O) = Valence electron in a oxygen atom of O2 molecule

L.E(O) = Lone pairs of an electron in the oxygen atom of the O2 molecule.

B.E = Bond pair electron in O atom of O2 molecule

calculation of formal charge on oxygen atom in O2 molecule

The oxygen terminal atom (one double bond connected to one oxygen atom) of the O2 molecule has six valence electrons, three lone pairs of electrons(six electrons), and 2 bonding pairing valence electrons. Put these values for the oxygen atom in the formula above.

Formal charge on oxygen atom of O2 molecule = (6- 4-(4/2)) =0

In the Lewis structure of O2, the formal charge on the terminal oxygen atom is zero.

## Summary:

In this post, we discussed the method to construct the O2 Lewis structure. First, the valence electrons are placed around the two oxygen atoms. Finally, when we combined the first and second steps. It gives O2 Lewis structure. Need to remember that, if you follow the above-said method, you can construct molecular dot structure very easily.

## What is the O2 Lewis structure?

O2 Lewis structure is dot representation

## What is the formal charge on the O2 Lewis structure?

Zero charges on the O2 molecular structure

## The polarity of the molecules

The polarity of the molecules are listed as follows

## Lewis Structure and Molecular Geometry

Lewis structure and molecular geometry of molecules are listed below

## External Reference:

Information on oxygen(O2)

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