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O2 Molecular Geometry - Science Education and Tutorials

O2 Molecular Geometry

Oxygen gas(O2) has the composition of one oxygen and one oxygen atom. What is the molecular geometry of oxygen gas?. Drawing and predicting the O2 molecular geometry is very easy by following the given method. Here in this post, we described step by step how to construct O2 molecular geometry. Oxygen and oxygen come from the 16th family groups in the periodic table. Oxygen and oxygen have six and six valence electrons respectively.

Key Points To Consider When drawing The O2 Molecular Geometry

A three-step approach for drawing the O2 molecular can be used. The first step is to sketch the molecular geometry of the O2 molecule, to calculate the lone pairs of the electron in the terminal oxygen atom; the second step is to calculate the O2 hybridization, and the third step is to give perfect notation for the O2 molecular geometry.

The O2 molecular geometry is a diagram that illustrates the number of valence electrons and bond electron pairs in the O2 molecule in a specific geometric manner. The geometry of the O2 molecule can then be predicted using the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR Theory) and molecular hybridization theory, which states that molecules will choose the O2 geometrical shape in which the electrons have from one another in the specific molecular structure.

Finally, you must add their bond polarities characteristics to compute the strength of the one O=O double bonds (dipole moment properties of the O2 molecular geometry). One oxygen-oxygen double bonds in the oxygen gas(O2), for example, are polarized toward the more electronegative value oxygen atom, and because (O=O) double bonds have the same size and polarity, their sum is nonzero due to the O2 molecule’s bond dipole moment due to pulling the electron cloud to the two side of linear or tetrahedral geometry, and the O2 molecule is classified as a nonpolar molecule.

O2 Molecular Geometry

The molecule of oxygen gas(with tetrahedral shape O2 molecular geometry) is tilted at 180 degrees bond angle of O=O. It has a difference in electronegativity values between oxygen and oxygen atoms, with oxygen’s pull the electron cloud being greater than oxygen. But the bond polarity of O=O is not canceled to each other in the linear or tetrahedral geometry. As a result, it has a nonzero permanent dipole moment in its molecular structure. The O2 molecule has a nonzero dipole moment due to an unequal charge distribution of negative and positive charges in the linear or tetrahedral geometry.

Overview: O2 electron and molecular geometry

According to the VSEPR theory, the O2 molecule ion possesses linear or tetrahedral molecular geometry. Because the center atom, oxygen, has one O=O double bond with the one oxygen atom surrounding it. The O=O bond angle is 180 degrees in the tetrahedral O2 molecular geometry. The O2 molecule has a linear or tetrahedral geometry shape because it contains one oxygen atom in the tetrahedral and three corners with three lone pairs of electrons.

There is one O=O double bond at the O2 molecular geometry. After linking the one oxygen atom and three lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen atom in the tetrahedral form, it maintains the tetrahedral-shaped structure. In the O2 molecular geometry, the O=O double bond has stayed in the one terminal and three lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen atom of the tetrahedral molecule.

The center oxygen atom of O2 has three lone pairs of electrons, resulting in tetrahedral O2 electron geometry. However, the molecular geometry of O2 looks tetrahedral or linear-shaped and has three lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen of the O2 geometry. It’s the O2 molecule’s slight symmetrical geometry. As a result, the O2 molecule is slightly nonpolar.

How to find O2 hybridization and molecular geometry

Calculating lone pairs of electrons on oxygen in the O2 geometry:

1.Determine the number of lone pairs of electrons in the core oxygen atom of the O2 Lewis structure. Because the lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen atom are mostly responsible for the O2 molecule geometry planar, we need to calculate out how many there are on the terminal oxygen atom of the O2 Lewis structure.

Use the formula below to find the lone pair on the oxygen atom of the O2 molecule.

L.P(O) = V.E(O) – N.A(O=O)

Lone pair on the terminal oxygen atom in O2 = L.P(O)

The core terminal oxygen atom’s valence electron in O2 = V.E(O)

Number of O=O bond = N.A (O=O)

calculation for oxygen atom lone pair in O2 molecule.

For instance of O2, the terminal atom, oxygen, has seven electrons in its outermost valence shell, one O=O double bond connection. This gives a total of one connection.

As a result of this, L.P(O) = (6 –2)=4

The lone pair of electrons in the oxygen atom of the O2 molecule is two.

Calculating lone pair of electrons on oxygen in the O2 geometry:

Finding lone pair of electrons for the terminal oxygen atom is similar to the terminal oxygen atom. We use the following formula as given below

Use the formula below to find the lone pair on the oxygen atom of the O2 molecule.

L.P(O) = V.E(O) – N.A(O=O)

Lone pair on the terminal oxygen atom in O2 = L.P(O)

Terminal oxygen atom’s valence electron in O2= V.E(O)

Number of O=O bonds = N.A ( O=O)

calculation for oxygen atom lone pair in O2 molecule.

For instance of O2, their terminal atoms, oxygen, have seven electrons in its outermost valence shell, one O=O double bond connection. This gives a total of one O=O double bond connection. But we are considering only one connection for the calculation.

As a result of this, L.P(O) = (6–2)=4

The lone pair of electrons in the oxygen atom of the O2 molecule is four One oxygen atom is connected with the terminal oxygen atom.

In the O2 electron geometry structure, the lone pairs on the terminal oxygen atom are three, lone pairs of electrons in the oxygen atom have zero. One oxygen atom has no lone pairs of electrons.

It means there are three lone pairs of electrons in the core oxygen atom. Three lone pair of electrons on the terminal oxygen atom are responsible for the linear or tetrahedral nature of O2 molecular geometry. But in the structure oxygen atoms are polarized sidewise in their linear or tetrahedral geometry.

The three lone pairs of electrons are placed at another side of the O2 geometry. Because the oxygen atom is a lower electronegativity value as compared with other atoms in the O2 molecule. One oxygen atom is polarized towards the sidewise in the O2 structure.

But in reality, the O2 has three lone pairs of electrons in its structure. This makes the O2 more asymmetrical in the structure of the molecule. Because there is electric repulsion between bond pairs and lone pairs.

But some sort of interaction is there between an oxygen empty hole and lone pairs of electrons of oxygen of another O2 molecule. Here, the oxygen of one molecule acts as an acceptor and the oxygen of another molecule as a donor. This is called oxygen bonding between the two O2 molecules. This is one of the main intermolecular forces in O2.

But in the terminal, an oxygen atom has three lone pairs of electrons and these lone pair electrons are placed in the three corners of the tetrahedral.

Calculate the number of molecular hybridizations of the O2 molecule

What is O2 hybridization? This is a very fundamental question in the field of molecular chemistry. All the molecules are made of atoms. In chemistry, atoms are the fundamental particles. There are four different types of orbitals in chemistry. They are named s, p, d, and f orbitals.

The entire periodic table arrangement is based on these orbital theories. Atoms in the periodic table are classified as follows:

s- block elements

p- block elements

d-block elements

f-block elements

Atoms are classified in the periodic table

The O2 molecule is made of one oxygen and oxygen atom. The oxygen and oxygen atoms have s and p orbitals. But the oxygen atom has only s orbital in the ground state. oxygen comes as the first element in the periodic table. The oxygen atom also belongs to the oxygen family group. But it falls as the first element in the periodic table.

When these atoms combine to form the O2 molecule, its atomic orbitals are mixed and form unique molecular orbitals due to hybridization.

How do you find the O2 molecule’s hybridization? We must now determine the molecular hybridization number of O2.

The formula of O2 molecular hybridization is as follows:

No. Hyb of O2= N.A(O=O bond) + L.P(S)

No. Hy of O2 = the number of hybridizations of O2

Number of O=O bonds = N.A (O=O bonds)

Lone pair on the terminal oxygen atom = L.P(O)

Calculation for hybridization number for O2 molecule

In the O2 molecule, oxygen is a core terminal atom with one oxygen atom connected to it. It has three lone pairs of electrons on oxygen. The number of O2 hybridizations (No. Hyb of O2) can then be estimated using the formula below.

No. Hyb of O2= 2+1=3

The O2 molecule ion hybridization is three. The oxygen and oxygen atoms have s and p orbitals. The sp2 hybridization of the O2 molecule is formed when one s orbital and two p orbitals join together to form the O2 molecular orbital.

Molecular Geometry Notation for O2 Molecule :

Determine the form of O2 molecular geometry using VSEPR theory. The AXN technique is commonly used when the VSEPR theory is used to calculate the shape of the O2 molecule.

The AXN notation of O2 molecule is as follows:

The terminal oxygen atom in the O2 molecule is denoted by the letter A.

The bound pairs (one O=O bonds) of electrons to the core oxygen atom are represented by X.

The lone pairs of electrons on the terminal oxygen atom are denoted by the letter N.

Notation for O2 molecular geometry

We know that O2 is the core atom, with seven electrons pair bound (one O=O) and three lone pairs of electrons. The general molecular geometry formula for O2 is AX1N3.

According to the VSEPR theory, if the O2 molecule ion has an AX1N3 generic formula, the molecular geometry and electron geometry will both be tetrahedral or linear-shaped forms.

Name of Moleculeoxygen gas
Chemical molecular formulaO2
Molecular geometry of O2Tetrahedral or linear
Electron geometry of O2Tetrahedral or linear
Hybridization of O2sp3
Bond angle (O=O)180º degree
Total Valence electron for O212
The formal charge of O2 on oxygen0

Summary:

In this post, we discussed the method to construct O2 molecular geometry, the method to find the lone pairs of electrons in the terminal O2 atom, O2 hybridization, and O2 molecular notation. Need to remember that, if you follow the above-said method, you can construct the O2 molecular structure very easily.

What is the hybridization of O2 Molecular Geometry?

SP3 hybridization for F2 Molecular Geometry

How many lone pairs of electron in O2 Molecular Geometry?

Six lone pairs of electrons in the F2 Molecular Geometry

The polarity of the molecules

The polarity of the molecules are listed as follows

Lewis Structure and Molecular Geometry

Lewis structure and molecular geometry of molecules are listed below

External Reference:

Information on oxygen gas(O2) molecule

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