The Fundamental forces of nature can be classified as follows
What is Gravitational force?
Gravitational force is one of the fundamental forces of nature which known first among all other forces. Because of the gravitational force, we are standing and walking in the earth. But it is not possible on the surface of the moon. Due to its low gravitational force as compared with the earth. In fact, Moon’s gravitation force is six times smaller than the earth’s.
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Initial experiments carried out by Greek physicist Galileo Galili in Pisa tower. He dropped the heavy lead ball and lightweight father at the same time from the top of the Pisa tower. The outcome of this famous Pisa tower experiment, Both heavy lead ball and feather reach to the ground at the same time. He did that experiment when the low flow of air. In conclusion, Earth attracts both heavy and lightweight body in the same manner. In definition, Earth’s attraction to other bodies is nothing but gravitational forces.
After Galileo Galili, Sir Issac Newton arrived with a wonderful apple experiment. If apple fell from the tree, why was it grounded to earth? why not going to heaven? Heaven means sky. He finally concluded that due to some attraction force in the earth, it attracts all bodies towards its center. That attraction force is defined as gravitational force. After this theory, Scientists created more experimental evidence for Newton’s theory.
At the beginning of the last century, Prof. Albert Einstein arrived with a beautiful theoretical method of the general theory of relativity, which was totally different from the special theory of relativity. He used Reinmann geometry and tensor algebra which was different from linear geometry. What is the reason one matters to attract another matter? This entire process of attraction takes place in the space. This gravitational force creates the curvature in the space.
This curvature of space was well explained with Reinmann geometry and tensor algebra. For example, This phenomenon takes place in the black hole, it makes the entire curvature of space on its surface. The light travels from the distant star bend by another star due to the curvature of space.
What is Electromagnetic force (Electrical force)?
The electromagnetic force is amalgamated with both electrical force and magnetic force. Initially, scientists believed, the electrical force arrived from both positive and negative electrical charges. Similarly, the magnetic force arrived from the magnetic bar of the north and south pole.
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At first, Sir Michael Faraday united these electrical and magnetical forces. This is called electromagnetic forces or fields. In his experiments, he used copper coils with certain turns and move the bar magnet front and forth. This movement of the front and forth of the bar magnet created electromotive force (emf) in the copper coil. It creates a current flow in the ammeter.
What is the electromotive force (emf)?
The electromotive force (emf) originated from a change in the flux of magnetic field lines. This electromotive force (emf) creates potential difference in the same copper wire. Thus, one terminal of copper wire becomes a positive pole and another negative pole. The electromotive force (emf) can be defined as the force moves the charges to one terminal and holes into another terminal.
Here, the Positive terminal is the holes and the negative terminal charges. This entire mobility of charges and holes takes place inside the conducting material. This movement of positive holes in one terminal and negative charges in another terminal creates a potential difference.
What is the Nuclear force?
The nuclear force takes place inside the atomic nucleus. It can further be classified as strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force. The strong nuclear force is responsible for holding all subatomic particles together. Another nuclear force is responsible for radioactive decay.
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Strong Nuclear force:
Strong nuclear force formed in the small nucleus distance ranges between the subatomic particles. How proton and another proton stay together inside the atomic nucleus? you see in hydrogen is the only atom in nature not having neutron.
Proton is a positive charge elementary particle. Neutron is a neutral charge particle. What is the neutrally charged particle? The neutrally charged particle contains both positive and negative charged subatomic particles in it. In the fraction of seconds, the particle exchange between proton and subatomic particles of the neutron. This particle exchange creates a strong nuclear force.
Weak Nuclear force:
The nuclear force mainly depends on the number of neutrons and protons in the atomic nucleus. These number creates neutron to proton ratio (n/p ratio). If the number of the neutron to proton ratio (n/p ratio) is one, then that particular atom is the stable one. If the number of the neutron to proton ratio (n/p ratio) is less than one, then that particular atom is not a stable one. If the number of the neutron to proton ratio (n/p ratio) is greater than one, then that particular atom is not a stable one.
In case, the neutron to proton ratio (n/p ratio) is less than one. The number of the proton is higher in that particular atom as compared with the number of the neutron. That means the number of positive charge subatomic is high in number. It generally undergoes the emission of positive charge particles under radioactive decay. For example, alpha decay is best suited for such a kind of radioactive decay. Helium ion ray is alpha decay. In nature, the sun is the best example of alpha decay.
In addition, if the neutron to proton ratio (n/p ratio) is greater than one. The number of the neutron is higher in that particular atom as compared with the number of the proton. That means the number of neutral species is more. After the neutralization with proton, the number of negative charge subatomic species are high in number. It generally undergoes the emission of negatively charged subatomic species. For example, beta decay is the best suited for such a kind of radioactive decay. The free electron is beta decay. In nature, the Thorium atom is the best example of beta decay.
What is the Unifying Theory?
What is the origin of these fundamental forces? If nature is one, then the origin of nature may be one. All forces originated from one force. The unifying theory is the dream of Albert Einstein. First, we should understand the behavior of all these fundamental forces.
The gravitational force spread throughout the universe. In the far distance, it becomes weak. But it won’t end. It attracts all matters in nature. This force mainly depends on Mass of the bodies and inversely proportional to the square of distance separated between the bodies. It is totally different from other types of forces.
In electrical force, positive and negative charges attract each other. The same charges repel with each other. The electrical force is directly proportional to charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance of separation of charges. It operates in a specifically limited distance.
In the magnetic force, North and south poles attract each other. But the same poles repel with each other. It mainly depends on the magnetic strength of the pole. These two forces combined as the electromagnetic force.
Nuclear strong and weak forces operate on a small atomic distance ranges. It is a very strong type of force among all other forces. But it operates in small distances. It mainly depends on the exchange or emission of subatomic particles.
Unifying Theory of Fundamental Forces:
Up to now, Strong nuclear and weak nuclear forces are unified as one force. It is generally called a nuclear force. All materials made by subatomic particles such as quarks, muons, leptons, etc. The list of subatomic particles extends like botanical naming. These subatomic particles create a standard model for particles. These particles can be categorized into fermions and bosons.
With this standard model, nuclear force and electromagnetic force come under the same frame of quantum field theory and quantum chromo theory (chromodynamics). Graviton is the hypothetical quantum gravity particle for the subatomic origin for gravitational force. But there is no renormalization of the general theory of relativity and quantum theory.
More things yet to come as experimental evidence for supersymmetry and string theory. If we get perfect evidence for string theory in LHC, then the unification of all fundamental forces is possible.
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