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What is a mole? - Science Education and Tutorials

# What is a mole?

Mole is the fundamental concept in chemistry. This is required to understand molecules and atoms. We can use this concept for subatomic things also. Like, electrons, protons etc. Now the question is, what is a mole? Can you weigh the single atom or molecule? No, it is not possible. Still we have made an instrument for that. Who knows?We may get such instruments in the future. But you can measure the force and conductance of a single molecule or atom by using nanoscopy such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy(STM) respectively. These instruments are intensively used in nanoscience and Technology.

## What is a mole in atom

But we are here in this blog post to discuss the mole. In chemistry and physics, we first deal with atoms. If you break the atoms, then you get so many subatomic particles. That is a different story. Number of protons in the atom is equivalent to the atomic weight of the atom. But don’t get confused, the weight of a proton is 10-27 kg . If you want one gram of proton, then you need around 1024 numbers of protons. Hydrogen atom have nothing but only one proton. That means, 10 24 number of protons gives approximately one gram of hydrogen atoms. Atomic weight of hydrogen is one. Because it has only one proton.

The fraction and proportion are mostly used and utilized by chemists. The  fraction between the weight of an atom or element and atomic weight is equal to the number of moles.

Number of moles =   Weight of atom/Atomic weight (g/mol)

Yes, now we have a new type of unit for atomic weight. That is gram per mole (g/mol). What is the atomic weight of carbon? The number of protons in a carbon atom is 6. We need to consider the number of neutrons also. Number of neutrons in a carbon atom is 6.  Because neutrons are nothing but the manifestation of protons. But it is neutral in charge. Then the total number of protons and neutrons are equal to 12. That is the atomic weight of carbon.

## Lewis Structure and Molecular Geometry

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