# What is Electrical energy and generation of electricity for science fair?

Among all forms of energy, electrical energy plays a very important role. It is required for our day to day application. What is the definition and application/use of electrical energy and electricity? In this blog, we mainly focus on school science fair ideas for science experiments and projects to all grade students. Most of our upcoming project ideas are based on electrical energy and experiments on the generation of electricity.

## What is Electrical Energy?

Energy is the ability to work done, the force moves the object or particle from one place to another place. This movement of object or particle under the force is called displacement of object or particle. We already discussed fundamental forces.

According to the conservation of energy, we can’t create any energy and neither destroy any form of energy. All forms of energy generated from these fundamental forces. Similarly, we can’t create any force and nor destruct the same. This is the conservation of energy. This law obeys in electrical energy also.

Electrical energy is generated from the electrical force. What is the origin of electrical force? It is originated from the field of electrical force line in the space. This is called the electric field line in the space. This generally takes place between the charged particles in the space. In this space, positive and negative charge particles attract each other. But the similarly charged particles (either positive or negative charge particle) repel with each other. Bicycle dynamo- Image by Daniel Kirsch from Pixabay

## Definition of Electrical Energy:

Electrical energy is the energy required to moves the charged particle from one place to another place. This work done is called electrical energy. Any form of energy classified into potential energy and kinetic energy. This is the same for electrical energy.
No one can estimate the potential energy. We can determine the change in potential energy. It is the universal truth. From a thermodynamics point of view, we call it as internal energy.
We can convert potential energy to kinetic energy. Similarly, we can restore kinetic energy into potential energy. It is possible in both ways. For example, the spring with weight moves horizontally back and forth. Here, when the weight compresses the spring fully and reaches its maximum potential energy and zero kinetic energy. In the middle or median point, where kinetic energy is maximum and potential energy is minimum. In the expanded point of the spring, where potential energy is maximum and kinetic energy is zero. This is called Hooke’s law. Copper coil- Image by Hans Braxmeier from Pixabay

## Science Project Idea for Electrical Energy Project:

In this science project, we plan to the generation of electricity from normal dynamo construction. Here from this experiment, you will learn a lot of new things about magnetic force, electrical energy and generation of electricity. Instead of solar cell energy, Almost all other generation of electricity use with a dynamo concept. Now I hope you understand the importance of dynamo.

### Material required for Electrical energy project:

1. U type cylindrical Iron rod  —  1 no
2. Copper wire                         —-  one big bundle
3. cardboard wheel                 —-  one
4. Rods                                     —-  2 nos
5. Bar Magnet                         —-   One
6. LED bulb                             —-   One
7. Multimeter                          —-  One
8. Stop clock                            —-  One Diagrammatic illustration for Science fair idea

### Standard Operating Protocol for Simple Electrical energy project:

1.  Take U type iron rod as given in the figure.
2.  winding the copper wire on the iron rod and note down the number of turns.
3.  Fix the wheel with handle and another side with a bar magnet as per figure.
4.  Two end terminal of copper wire is connected with the LED bulb.
5.  Rotate the wheel and switch on the stop clock to calculate rotation per   minute(rpm)

### Observation from Simple Electrical energy Project:

If you increase the rotation per minute (rpm), you note down your observation in the record notebook. What is happening to the LED bulb? you can record the entire experiment with the camera as a video. After the finding, you can display this model and your video to science fair project for 4th, 5th, and 6th grade student.

## What is the role of Current and voltage in Electrical energy?

Current:opposite direction Flow of electrical charges in the conductor or any conducting medium.
Voltage: The reason or source for the flow of the electrical charges between the two terminals. It is called the potential difference.
Resistance:The resisting or hindering power of conducting medium for the flow of electrical charges.
All these three parameters are interrelated with each other. From these, we derive the following equations.
Current:           I=Q/t
Ohm’s Law:      V=IR
Work done = Electrical Energy
Electrical Energy =  VQ
Electrical Energy =  VIt
Electrical Energy or  work done =  V²t/R
Here, Q, t, V, I and Rare charge, time, voltage, current, and resistance respectively. This equation, we use for the calculation of electrical energy for science fair.

## Standard Operating Protocol for Advanced Electrical Energy Project:

Science experiments start with an observation of the outcome. But we need numerical data for analysis and comparison. How to collect numerical data from this experiment? as we discussed earlier parameters and conditions.
1. Takeout the LED bulb from the above simple experiment.
2. Place multimeter in that place.
3. With multimeter, we can calculate voltage and resistance.
4. With stop clock, we can calculate time in seconds.
5. Tabulate different rpm vs voltage. Because resistance is constant.
6. Calculate electrical energy for different rpm.

### Observation of advanced Electrical Energy project:

From the outcome of these experiment, we get table of differe rpm vs voltage and rpm vs electrical energy. We can plot graph rpm vs voltage and rpm vs electrical energy also. This experiment results can be displayed in science fair project for 7th and 8th grade students.

## Standard Operating Protocol for More advanced Electrical energy Project:

1. Take U type iron rod.
2. Make more number of turns in copper winding on iron rod.
3. Repeat the above said experiment in the same manner.
4. We get more data for different turns.
5. We can compare different rpm vs voltage and rpm vs electrical energy in different copper turns.

### Observation from more advanced electrical energy project:

From these more advanced experiments, the number of turns on U type iron rod affects the voltage and rpm of the system. We will get an enormous amount of data for the statistical survey about the different numbers of turns and distribution of electrical energy.  This science experiment analysis for 9th grade student.

## What is the Unit for Electrical energy?

Unit of electrical energy is the Joule (or Watt-second or kiloWatt-hour). one Joule of electrical energy comes from one volt of voltage, one ampere of current and one second of time. This is the definition of one Joule of electrical energy.
1kWh = 1000 X 60 X 60 Watt-seconds
1kWh = 36 X 10⁵ Ws or Joules
In the domestic measurement of electrical energy, one kWh is equivalent to one unit. you will get your electric bill based on this unit only.

## How to convert electrical energy?

Electrical energy is converted into any form of physical energy such as mechanical energy, heat,  light energy, etc.,
Examplesfrom our daily experience:
Fan:Electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy.
Light bulb: Electrical energy is converted into light energy.
Battery Car: Electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy.
In this blog, we mainly focus on science fair projects for kids, 3rd, 4th, 5th,6th, 7th,8th and 9th grade students. you can see more project ideas updates in our sitemap