How to draw ZnCl2 Lewis Structure?

Drawing ZnCl2 Lewis Structure is very easy. Here in this post, we described step by step method to construct ZnCl2 Lewis Structure.

Key Points To Consider When Drawing The ZnCl2 Lewis Structure

A three-step approach for drawing the ZnCl2 Lewis structure can be used. The first step is to sketch the Lewis structure of the ZnCl2 molecule, to add valence electron around the Zinc atom; the second step is to valence electron to the two chlorine atoms, and the final step is to combine the step1 and step2 to get the ZnCl2 Lewis Structure.

The ZnCl2 Lewis structure is a diagram that illustrates the number of valence electrons and bond electron pairs in the ZnCl2 molecule. It is basically a dissociable ionic molecule. The geometry of the ZnCl2 molecule can then be predicted using the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR Theory), which states that molecules will choose a ZnCl2 geometrical shape in which the electrons have from one another.

Finally, you must add their bond polarities to compute the strength of the Zn-Cl bond (dipole moment properties of the ZnCl2 molecule). The Zinc-Chlorine bonds in Zinc chloride(ZnCl2), for example, are polarised toward the more electronegative chlorine, and because both bonds have the same size and opposite to each other, their sum is zero due to the ZnCl2 molecule’s bond dipole moment, and the ZnCl2 molecule is classified as a nonpolar molecule.

The molecule of Zinc chloride (with linear geometry) is tilted at 180 degrees and has a difference in electronegativity values between chlorine and Zinc atoms, with Zinc’s pull being less than chlorine’s terminal in the ZnCl2 molecule. As a result, it has no dipole moment. The ZnCl2 molecule has no dipole moment due to an equal charge distribution of negative and positive charges.

How to draw ZnCl2 Lewis Structure?

ZnCl2 Lewis Structure:

The central atom is Zinc, which is bordered on two terminals with chlorine atoms. Zinc has two outermost valence electrons, indicating that it possesses two electrons in its outermost shell, whereas chlorine only has seven valence electrons in its outermost shell. To complete the octet of the chlorine atom, a chlorine terminal atom requires one electron. If you’re interested in learning more about the chlorine octet rule, please see in our previous post.

Two chlorine atoms establish covalent connections with the Zinc atom as a result, leaving the Zinc atom without any lone pairs. There are no lone pairs on the Zinc central atom that resist the bond pairs of the two Zn-Cl. According to VSEPR theory, no electronic repulsion leads the ZnCl2 molecule to take on a linear molecular shape like NO2+ and CS2.

The ZnCl2 molecule’s Zn-Cl bonds are arranged in a symmetrical order around the linear geometry, giving rise to the linear ZnCl2 shape. The ZnCl2 molecule has a linear molecular geometry because there is no electrical repulsion between them.

Electronegative Difference Calculation ZnCl2 Molecule:

Zinc has an electronegativity of 1.65, while chlorine has an electronegativity of 3.16 in the ZnCl2 molecule. The difference in electronegativity can be estimated using the method below.

The electronegative value difference between Zinc and chlorine

Electronegativity value of Zinc = 1.65

Electronegativity value of chlorine= 3.16

Difference of electronegativity value between Zinc and chlorine= 3.16 – 1.65 =1.51

Electronegativity difference between Zn-Cl bond calculation of ZnCl2 molecule

Due to the difference in electronegativity value of greater than 0.5, the Zn-Cl bond of the ZnCl2 molecule becomes polar. Because of this difference in electronegativity, the ZnCl2 molecule’s Zn-Cl bond becomes polar. The electronegativity of an atom is the strength with which it may attract bound electron pairs to its side. The polarity of ZnCl2 is discussed in our previous post.

As a result, the Zn-Cl bond’s dipole moment is high due to the polarization of the bonds, and all Zn-Cl bonds’ dipoles are faced opposite to each other in the linear geometry. The ZnCl2 molecule’s total dipole moment is predicted to be 0 D. It has a partial negative charge for chlorine atoms and a partial positive charge for the central Zinc atom.

The electron dot structure of the ZnCl2 molecule is also known as the ZnCl2 Lewis structure. It determines the number of outermost valence electrons as well as the electrons engaged in the ZnCl2 molecule’s bond formation. The outermost valence electrons of the ZnCl2 molecule must be understood while considering the Lewis structure of the molecule.

The Zinc atom is the middle element in ZnCl2 molecular geometry, with two electrons in its outermost valence electron shell, whereas the chlorine atom has seven electrons in its outermost valence electron shell.

The ZnCl2 molecule has a total of 16 valence electrons as a result of the foregoing reasoning. With the core central Zinc atom, the two-terminal chlorine atoms form covalent bonds, leaving the Zinc atom with no lone pairs on it.

The linear geometry and structure of the ZnCl2 molecules are similar to that of the carbon disulfide (CS2) molecule because no lone pairs of central Zinc atoms create interaction with Zn-Cl bond pairs. The bond angle of the Cl-Zn-Cl bond is approximately 180 degrees. The Zn-Cl bond length is 2.2370 or 2.2301 pm(picometer).

To sketch the ZnCl2 Lewis structure by following these instructions:

Step-1: ZnCl2 Lewis Structure

To calculate the valence electron of each atom in ZnCl2, look for its periodic group from the periodic table. The transition metal group and halogen families, which are the 12th and 17th groups in the periodic table, are both made up of Zinc and chlorine atoms. In their outermost shells, Zinc and chlorine have two and seven valence electrons, respectively.

Because Zinc and chlorine are members of the periodic table’s transition metal group and halogen family groups, their valence electrons are two and seven, respectively.

Calculate the total number of electrons in the ZnCl2 molecule’s outermost valence shell. The first step is to determine how many electrons are in the ZnCl2 Lewis structure’s outermost valence shell. An electron in an atom’s outermost shell is known as a valence electron. It is represented by dots in the ZnCl2 Lewis diagram. The ZnCl2 molecule’s core carbon atom can be represented as follows:

Total outermost valence shell electron of Zinc atom in ZnCl2= 2

Total outermost valence shell electron of chlorine atom in ZnCl2= 7

The ZnCl2 molecule has one central Zinc atom and two chlorine atoms. Then the total outermost valence shell electrons can be calculated as follows

∴ Total outermost valence shell electrons available for ZnCl2 Lewis structure( dot structure) = 2 +2*7= 16 valence electrons  in ZnCl2    

calculation of total valence electron of ZnCl2 molecule

Choose the atom with the least electronegative value atom and insert it in the center of the molecular geometry of ZnCl2. We’ll choose the least electronegative value atom in the ZnCl2 molecule to place in the center of the ZnCl2 Lewis structure diagram in this phase. The electronegativity value in periodic groups grows from left to right in the periodic table and drops from top to bottom.

How to draw ZnCl2 Lewis Structure?

Step-2: ZnCl2 Lewis Structure

As a result, Zinc is the first atom in the periodic table’s transition metal 12 th family group. Chlorine is the second member of the halogen family. The electronegative value of a Zinc atom is lower than that of a chlorine atom. Furthermore, Zinc has a two electrons limit since chlorine is the most electronegative element in the ZnCl2 molecule.

In a ZnCl2 Lewis structure diagram, the Zinc atom can be the center atom. As a result, central Zinc in the ZnCl2 Lewis structure, with all two chlorines arranged in the two-terminal of linear geometry.

How to draw ZnCl2 Lewis Structure?

Step-3: ZnCl2 Lewis Structure

Connect the exterior and core central atom of the ZnCl2 molecule with two single bonds (Zn-Cl). In this stage, use two single bonds to connect all two chlorine atoms on the outside of the ZnCl2 molecule to the central Zinc atom in the middle.

Count how many electrons from the outermost valence shell have been used in the ZnCl2 structure so far. Each Zn-Cl bond carries two electrons because each Zinc atom is connected to two chlorine atoms by two Zn-Cl bonds. Bond pairings are what they’re called.

So, out of the total of 16 valence electrons available for the ZnCl2 Lewis structure, we used 4 for the ZnCl2 molecule’s two single (Zn-Cl) bonds. The ZnCl2 molecule has no lone pair electrons in the center Zinc. We don’t need to put the extra electron in the molecular geometry of ZnCl2.

Place the valence electrons in the Zn-Cl bond pairs starting with the core Zinc and two chlorine atoms in the ZnCl2 molecule. In the ZnCl2 Lewis structure diagram, we always begin by introducing valence electrons from the central Zinc atom. As a result, wrap around the central Zinc atom’s bond pair valence electrons first.

Zinc requires 4 electrons in its outermost valence shell to complete the molecular stability. Zinc already shares 4 electrons thanks to the two single bonds. Then place the valence electron in the chlorine atom, it placed around seven electrons. Totally, 12 valence electrons were placed on the two chlorine atoms of the ZnCl2 molecule.

We’ve positioned four electrons around the central Zinc atom, which is represented by a dot, in the ZnCl2 molecular structure above. The Zinc atom completes its molecular stability in the ZnCl2 molecule because it possesses 4 electrons in its outermost valence shell.

Count how many outermost valence shell electrons have been used so far using the ZnCl2 Lewis structure. Four electrons are shown as dots in the ZnCl2 chemical structure, whereas two single bonds each contain two electrons. The outermost valence shell electrons of the ZnCl2 molecule are 4 + 12= 16 as a result of the calculation.

How to draw ZnCl2 Lewis Structure?

So far, we’ve used 16 of the ZnCl2 Lewis structure’s total eight outermost valence shell electrons.

Complete the middle Zinc atom stability and, if necessary, apply a covalent bond. The core atom in the ZnCl2 Lewis structure is Zinc, which is bonded to the chlorine atoms by two single bonds (Zn-Cl). With the help of two single bonds, it already shares four electrons. As a result, chlorine follows the octet rule and has eight electrons surrounding it on the two terminals of ZnCl2.

How to calculate the formal charge in ZnCl2 Lewis Structure?

The formal charge on the ZnCl2 molecule’s Zinc central atom often corresponds to the actual charge on that Zinc central atom. In the following computation, the formal charge will be calculated on the central Zinc atom of the ZnCl2 Lewis dot structure.

To calculate the formal charge on the central Zinc atom of the ZnCl2 molecule by using the following formula:

The formal charge on the Zinc atom of ZnCl2 molecule= (V. E(Zn)– L.E(Zn – 1/2(B.E))

V.E (Zn) = Valence electron in Zinc atom of ZnCl2 molecule

L.E(Zn) = Lone pairs of an electron in the Zinc atom of the ZnCl2 molecule.

B.E = Bond pair electron in Be atom of ZnCl2 molecule

calculation of formal charge on Zinc atom in ZnCl2 molecule

The Zinc core atom (two single bonds connected to chlorines) of the ZnCl2 molecule has two valence electrons, zero lone pair electrons, and four bonding electrons. Put these values for the Zinc atom in the formula above.

Formal charge on Zinc atom of ZnCl2 molecule = (2- 0-(4/2)) =0

In the Lewis structure of ZnCl2, the formal charge on the central Zinc atom is zero.


In this post, we discussed the method to construct the ZnCl2 Lewis structure. Need to remember that, if you follow the above-said method, you can construct molecular dot structure very easily.

What is the ZnCl2 Lewis structure?

ZnCl2 Lewis structure is dot representation

What is the formal charge on the ZnCl2 Lewis structure?

Zero charges on the ZnCl2 molecular structure

The polarity of the molecules

Polarity of the molecules are listed as follows

Lewis Structure and Molecular Geometry

Lewis structure and molecular geometry of molecules are listed below

External Reference:

Information on ZnCl2

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